Fed-batch cultures of recombinantEscherichia coli strains were carried out for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) in a chemically defined medium. TheE. coli strains used were XL1-Blue, harboring pSYL105, a stable high-copy number plasmid containing theAlcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) genes, and XL1-Blue, harboring pSYL107, which is pSYL105 containing theE. coli ftsZ gene to suppress filamentation. With XL1-Blue(pSYL105) the final cell mass and PHB concentration obtained in 62 h were 102 and 22.5 g/L, respectively. Fed-batch culture of XL1-Blue(pSYL107) under identical conditions resulted in a final cell mass and PHB concentration of 127.5 and 48.2 g/L, respectively. The PHB contents obtained with XL1-Blue(pSYL105) and XL1-Blue(pSYL107) were 22.1 and 37.8%, respectively. Therefore, PHB was more efficiently produced in a defined medium by employing filamentation-suppressed recombinantE. coli.