, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 1825-1841

Absorption and release of pheromone ofEpiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by apple leaves

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Abstract

The absorption and release of the pheromone ofEpiphyas postvititana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),E 11–14: OAc andE,E 9, 11–14: OAc (95:5) by apple leaves was studied using electroantennograms (EAG) and sticky traps baited with pheromone-treated leaves. Leaves exposed to an airstream containing pheromone reached a constant level of pheromone release within 3 min. Release occurred over a period greater than 24 hr, following removal of leaves from the pheromone-saturated environment. Pheromone-treated leaves were effective as lures in sticky traps for at least three nights, although the average catch per night decrease logarithmically with time. In the field, pheromone was detected by EAG on leaves harvested from up to 25 cm away from a central point source of pheromone. The shape of a surface representing equal pheromone re-release from leaves around a central point source was defined by interpolation from a three-dimensional transect. Leaves harvested from 5 cm under the dispensers showed the highest pheromone release rate. Leaves downwind of the dispensers also had higher release of pheromone. In a treated orchard, significantly higher EAG measurements were recorded in the rows of trees that contained dispensers, compared to grass interrows or untreated trees. The implications of foliar pheromone adsorption and release on atmospheric concentrations and insect behavior require further investigation.