, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 1281-1328

Metabolic costs of terpenoid accumulation in higher plants

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Abstract

The net value of any plant trait can be assessed by measuring the costs and benefits associated with that trait. While the other contributors to this issue examine the possible benefits of terpenoids to plants, this article explores the metabolic costs of terpenoid accumulation in plants in the light of recent advances in terpenoid biochemistry. Terpenoids are more expensive to manufacture per gram than most other primary and secondary metabolites due to their extensive chemical reduction. The enzyme costs of making terpenoids are also high since terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes are apparently not shared with other metabolic pathways. In fact, plant cells may even possess more than one set of enzymes for catalyzing the basic steps of terpenoid formation. Terpenoids are usually sequestered in complex, multicellular secretory structures, and so storage costs for these substances are also likely to be substantial. However, not all of the processes involved in terpenoid accumulation require large investments of resources. For instance, the maintenance of terpenoid pools is probably inexpensive because there is no evidence that substantial quantities of terpenes are lost as a result of metabolic turnover, volatilization, or leaching. Moreover, plants may reduce their net terpenoid costs by employing individual compounds in more than one role or by catabolizing substances that are no longer needed, although it is still unclear if such practices are widespread. These findings (and other facets of terpenoid biochemistry and physiology) are discussed in relation to the assumptions and predictions of several current theories of plant defense, including the carbonnutrient balance hypothesis, the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, and the resource availability hypothesis.