Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 575–581

Influences of hardness constituents on the acute toxicity of cadmium to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)


  • John J. Carroll
    • Office of Water and Waste ManagementU. S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Stephen J. Ellis
    • EG&G, Bionomics
  • Walter S. Oliver
    • EG&G, Bionomics

DOI: 10.1007/BF02026990

Cite this article as:
Carroll, J.J., Ellis, S.J. & Oliver, W.S. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1979) 22: 575. doi:10.1007/BF02026990


These data show that of the three major constituents characteristic of most hard waters (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, and the CO2 system) calcium ion, introduced either as sulfate or carbonate, is the major source of protection against cadmium toxicity. This protective effect is observed in the absence of significant cadmium precipitation. Magnesium ion, sulfate ion, sodium ion and the carbonate system provide little or no protection.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1979