, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp 596-597

Fatal brainstem encephalitis caused by Epstein-Barr virus

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An 8-month-old male infant, previously well, developed acute changes of consciousness associated with high fever, vomiting, and respiratory failure. Brain CT showed hypodensity of the brainstem, which had shown hyperechogenicity on brain ultrasonography. Brainstem encephalitis caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was diagnosed, based on the clinical presentation, neuroimaging and paired serological examinations. The patient expired eventually due to central failure. We suggest that EBV infection should be a differential diagnosis in cases of brainstem encephalitis.