, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 605–611

Classification and distribution ofFicus

  • C. C. Berg

DOI: 10.1007/BF01975677

Cite this article as:
Berg, C.C. Experientia (1989) 45: 605. doi:10.1007/BF01975677


The classification of the genusFicus has changed considerably in the course of time and is still the subject of further research and discussion. The main subdivisions in the most recent classification by Corner12 are presented together with the genera of pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) associated with them. These subdivisions are discussed and grouped according to morphological and functional traits, in particular in connection with the unique pollination system. Two main groups are recognized: one with only monoecious species and the other with predominantly (gyno)dioecious species. The former comprises two subgroups (Pharmacosycea andUrostigma) and the latter three, more profoundly different subgroups (Ficus, Sycidium andSycomorus). The neotropical representatives of the genus are discussed in somewhat more detail. In addition, the distribution of the genus is summarized for the three main regions of distribution; Africa, America, and Asia-Australasia. Finally the concordance between subdivisions ofFicus and those of the Agaonidae is briefly discussed.

Key words


Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. C. Berg
    • 1
  1. 1.Arboretum and Botanical Garden (ARBOHA)University of BergenStore Milde(Norway)