Bianchi, N.O., Larramendy, M.L., Bianchi, M.S. et al. Experientia (1986) 42: 622. doi:10.1007/BF01955563
Llama, guanaco, vicuna and alpaca show similar diploid numbers, gross chromosomal morphology and homologous G, C and NOR banding patterns. This chromosomal homology is also found in the two-humped camel and very probably in the one-humped camel as well. These findings indicate that the camelid karyotype can probably be traced back to early Miocene times. This probably represents the most extreme case of chromosomal conservatism among mammals.