The female urethral syndrome is rarely associated with human papillomavirus infection types 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33
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- Allen, P.M., Davis, G.D., Bowen, L.W. et al. Int Urogynecol J (1995) 6: 195. doi:10.1007/BF01894261
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In a 24-month prospective study, 22 patients with documented papillomavirus lesions elsewhere in the lower genital tract underwent biopsy of the urothelium of the urethra. These patients met the accepted criteria for urethral syndrome. The specimens were obtained under colposcopic control with small tissue biopsy forceps inserted through a modified Kelly air cystoscope. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and subsequent DNA primer evaluation failed to reveal the presence of papillomavirus infection in 20 of the 22 patients. Differentiated squamous mucosa was found on morphologic studies from these biopsies in 18 instances (82%). This multicenter study was unable to document the presence of human papillomavirus infection of the proximal urethral vesical neck or bladder trigone.