, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 507-523

Current concepts in pediatric primary nocturnal enuresis

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It is estimated that enuresis affects 5 to 7 million children in the United States. Although the problem is common and well known, appropriate and effective treatment is not always provided. This may be due to the many etiological theories associated with this condition as well as a correspondingly high number of interventions. The present paper summarizes the empirical literature regarding primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), with an emphasis on pharmacological and behavioral interventions. The data support the view that children with enuresis have a wide range of negative experiences that can affect self-esteem and development, but that enuresis is not associated with significant psychiatric or behavioral difficulties. Given the strong empirical support for several interventions for PNE, children who have this condition should not go untreated.

This paper was supported, in part, by a grant from Rhône-Poulenc Rorer. The comments of Christine T. Majors, M.S., University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, are gratefully acknowledged.
Dr. Friman is with Father Flanagan's Boy's Town.