Environmental Management

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 783–787

Resampling methods for evaluating classification accuracy of wildlife habitat models


  • David L. Verbyla
    • Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of New Hampshire
  • John A. Litvaitis
    • Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of New Hampshire

DOI: 10.1007/BF01868317

Cite this article as:
Verbyla, D.L. & Litvaitis, J.A. Environmental Management (1989) 13: 783. doi:10.1007/BF01868317


Predictive models of wildlife-habitat relationships often have been developed without being tested The apparent classification accuracy of such models can be optimistically biased and misleading. Data resampling methods exist that yield a more realistic estimate of model classification accuracy These methods are simple and require no new sample data. We illustrate these methods (cross-validation, jackknife resampling, and bootstrap resampling) with computer simulation to demonstrate the increase in precision of the estimate. The bootstrap method is then applied to field data as a technique for model comparison We recommend that biologists use some resampling procedure to evaluate wildlife habitat models prior to field evaluation.

Key words

BootstrapCross-validationDiscriminant analysisHabitat modelingResampling methods

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1989