, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 213-227

First online:

Ecology and behavior of the wild proboscis monkey,Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb), in Sabah, Malaysia

  • Munemi KawabeAffiliated withDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Science, Osaka City University
  • , Tetsuzo ManoAffiliated withDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Science, Osaka City University

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Proboscis monkeys,Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb), were investigated in the Padas Bay and Kinabatangan River areas, Sabah, from July 1968 to March 1969. The proboscis monkey is a common, widely distributed species of coloboids in Sabah, living in the various vegetations that extend from the coastal swamp to the inland plain. It appears to have a terrestrial tendency, compared with other coloboids, moving around on the ground in the forest and extending its activity, sometimes, to the open land along the river beach. The number of monkey in a troop, we observed, ranged from 11 to 32, and almost all troops were composed of several adult males, many more adult females, and immature animals. The adult males appear to play the role of leaders in the troop through their characteristic behavior, attacking, threatening, warning, watching, etc., other troop members or invaders. Each troop always emitted various boisterous vocalizations which were divided into 14 types.