Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 7–87

A review of handwriting research: Progress and prospects from 1980 to 1994

  • Steve Graham
  • Naomi Weintraub

DOI: 10.1007/BF01761831

Cite this article as:
Graham, S. & Weintraub, N. Educ Psychol Rev (1996) 8: 7. doi:10.1007/BF01761831


Contemporary handwriting research has focused on skilled performance, the developing capabilities of children, atypical development, the effectiveness of various letter forms, instructional techniques, and the construction and evaluation of assessment instruments. This paper critically reviews and synthesizes research conducted between 1980 and 1994 in each of these areas, providing suggestions for future research. Considerable progress was made during this time period in understanding the processes involved in handwriting control and development as well as in teaching students with handwriting difficulties. In addition, advances in theory, experimental procedures, on-line recording devices, and computerized instructional programs resulted in an increased level of sophistication. Thus, the prospects for future research in this area are promising.

Key words

handwriting researchletter formsinstructional techniquesassessment instruments

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steve Graham
    • 1
  • Naomi Weintraub
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EducationUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA