, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 189-216

On dominance rank and kinship of a wild Japanese monkey troop in Arashiyama

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Abstract

Observations on dominance rank and kinship of a wild Japanese monkey troop living in Arashiyama, Kyoto, were made as follows: (1) Ranking exists among consanguineous-relatives, and their dominance relation has a great effect on the ranking of individual infants, the influence of which remains after they have grown; (2) With the development of individual infants, a dominance rank is formed by the age of 1 among males and females of the same age according to the ranking of their mothers in the troop, that is, the ranking of consanguineous-relatives, and it remains unchanged through the age of 2; (3) Comparison between individual males and females in ranking becomes difficult to assess after about 3 years of age, though the dominance rank based on mothers' rank still exists among both males and females of the same age. And this dominance' rank becomes very stable; (4) The principle of “youngest ascendency” becomes effective among sisters more than 4 years old. The youngest sister ranks just below her mother and holds the second rank among lineal consanguineous-relatives; (5) Brothers of very close ages temporarily tend toward youngest ascendency when they are 2 or 3 years old, but this relation is soon reversed into the dominance of the elder brother over the younger; (6) Whether male or female, a younger infant of a higher-ranking mother challenges an elder one of a lower-ranking mother and outranks it. In the case of males especially, disparity of age, joint effects of a group, dependent effects on the central part that attend on peripheralization play an important role in outranking.