College cheating: Ten years later
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In this 10-year follow-up study of student cheating, we surveyed 474 university students to (1) evaluate the extent of cheating; (2) assess attitudes toward cheating; (3) identify variables that discriminate between cheaters and noncheaters; (4) assess the relative effectiveness of various deterrents to cheating; and (5) examine changes in cheating attitudes and behaviors from 1984 to 1994. Most students (61.2%) reported cheating in 1994, up significantly from 54.1% in 1984 (Haines et al., 1986). Despite this increased cheating, students in 1994 were significantly less likely than in 1984 to neutralize (rationalize) their cheating. Ten variables that discriminated between cheaters and noncheaters in 1984 did so again in 1994, and 12 additional discriminating variables were identified. A principal components analysis of these 22 variables indicated that, compared to noncheaters, cheaters are (1) less mature; (2) less reactive to observed cheating; (3) less deterred by social stigma and guilt and more likely to neutralize cheating; (4) less personally invested in their education; and (5) more likely to be receiving scholarships, but doing less well in school. Both cheaters and noncheaters rated embarrassment and fear of punishment as the strongest deterrents to cheating; disapproval of one's friends was ranked as the least effective deterrent by both groups.
- Davis, S., Grover, C., Becker, A., and McGregor, L. (1992). Academic dishonesty: Prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments.Teaching of Psychology 19(1): 16–20.
- Forsyth, D. R., Pope, W. R., and McMillan, J. H. (1985). Students' reactions after cheating: An attributional analysis.Contemporary Educational Psychology 10: 72–82.
- Gardner, W. M., Roper, J. T., Gonzalez, C. C., and Simpson, R. G. (1988). Analysis of cheating on academic assignments.The Psychological Record 38: 543–555.
- Haines, V. J., Diekhoff, G. M., LaBeff, E. E., and Clark, R. E. (1986). College cheating: Immaturity, lack of commitment, and the neutralizing attitude.Research in Higher Education 25: 342–354.
- Jendrek, M. P. (1989). Faculty reactions to academic dishonesty.Journal of College Student Development 30(5): 401–406.
- Jendrek, M. P. (1992). Student reactions to academic dishonesty.Journal of College Student Development 33(3): 260–273.
- Kohlberg, L. (1964). Development of moral character and moral ideology. In M. Hoffman and L. W. Hoffman (eds.),Review of Child Development Research, p. 400. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Maramark, S., and Maline, M. B. (1993).Academic Dishonesty Among College Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
- May, K. M., and Loyd, B. (1993). Academic dishonesty: The honor system and students' attitudes.Journal of College Student Development 34(2): 125–129.
- McCabe, D. L. (1992). The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students.Sociological Inquiry 62(3): 365–374.
- McCabe, D. L., and Bowers, W. J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty-year perspective.Journal of College Student Development 35: 5–10.
- McCabe, D. L., and Trevino, L. K. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences.The Journal of Higher Education 64(5): 522–538.
- Michaels, J. W. (1989). Applying theories of deviance to academic cheating.Social Science Quarterly 70(4): 870–885.
- Pactor, H. S., McKeen, W., and Morris, J. (1990). Students' ethics require new ways to cope with cheating.Journalism Educator 44(4): 57–59.
- Sykes, G., and Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency.American Sociological Review 22: 664–670.
- Ward, D. A., and Beck, W. L. (1990). Gender and dishonesty.Journal of Social Psychology 130(3): 333–339.
- Welsh, J. F. (1993). Student academic dishonesty in higher education: Social context and institutional response. Unpublished report, Kansas Board of Regents, Topeka, Kansas.
- College cheating: Ten years later
Research in Higher Education
Volume 37, Issue 4 , pp 487-502
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Human Sciences Press
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, Midwestern State University, 76308, Wichita Falls, TX, USA
- 2. Department of Sociology, Midwestern State University, USA
- 3. Wichita General Hospital, USA