Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 227–264

Autogenic Training: A narrative and quantitative review of clinical outcome

  • Wolfgang Linden

DOI: 10.1007/BF01721069

Cite this article as:
Linden, W. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation (1994) 19: 227. doi:10.1007/BF01721069


This review of controlled outcome research on Autogenic Training complements the literature by pooling narrative and quantitative approaches, by including only studies with experimental controls, by integrating the English and German literature, and by adding research findings published since the last review. Whereas previous reviews have already reported positive effects of Autogenic Training for migraine, insomnia, and test anxiety, additional supportive findings for angina pectoris, asthma, childbirth, eczema, hypertension, infertility, Raynaud's disease, and recovery from myocardial infarction are discussed here. The impact of protocol variations on outcome is described, and the specificity of Autogenic Training relative to other stress management techniques is highlighted. Quantitative findings suggested that Autogenic Training was associated with medium-sized pre- to posttreatment effects ranging from d =.43 for biological indices of change to d =.58 for psychological and behavioral indices thus matching effect sizes for other biobehavioral treatment techniques like biofeedback and muscular relaxation. Length of treatment did not affect clinical outcome. The discussion emphasizes how narrative and quantitative strategies complement one another.

Descriptor Key words

autogenic training outcome research 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Linden
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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