, Volume 266, Issue 4, pp 245-255

X-ray production by 1.5–11 MeV protons

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Abstract

K-shell ionization andL x-ray production cross-sections by proton impact have been determined from measurements ofK x-ray yields from thin targets of Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni and Ag and ofL x-ray yields from Au and Pb. The proton energies varied from 1.5 to 11 MeV. A Si(Li) semiconductor detector recorded the x-rays. The total error in the measured cross-sections is mostly less than 5%.K β /K α ratios andL l,β,γ /L α ratios have been determined. Ionization cross-sections have been compared with predictions of the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) and the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). Both theories describe the ionization quite well: PWBA is, however, better for higher proton energies whereas BEA is superior for lower energies. An empirical formula for ionization cross-sections is derived.

Work supported in part by the Swedish Board of Technical Development.
We are grateful to Professor S.A.E. Johansson for encouragement and many helpul discussions. We thank Mr. K. Sjöberg for the construction of our set-up and the staffs of the VdG-laboratory of the University of Lund and of the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala for their assistance in performing the experiment.