Communications in Mathematical Physics
, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 259264
There are no Goldstone bosons in two dimensions
 Sidney ColemanAffiliated withJoseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University
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In four dimensions, it is possible for a scalar field to have a vacuum expectation value that would be forbidden if the vacuum were invariant under some continuous transformation group, even though this group is a symmetry group in the sense that the associated local currents are conserved. This is the Goldstone phenomenon, and Goldstone's theorem states that this phenomenon is always accompanied by the appearance of massless scalar bosons. The purpose of this note is to show that in two dimensions the Goldstone phenomenon can not occur; Goldstone's theorem does not end with two alternatives (either manifest symmetry or Goldstone bosons) but with only one (manifest symmetry).
 Title
 There are no Goldstone bosons in two dimensions
 Journal

Communications in Mathematical Physics
Volume 31, Issue 4 , pp 259264
 Cover Date
 197312
 DOI
 10.1007/BF01646487
 Print ISSN
 00103616
 Online ISSN
 14320916
 Publisher
 SpringerVerlag
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 Authors

 Sidney Coleman ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA