Cameron N. The methods of auxological anthropometry. In: Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human growth: a comprehensive treatise. Vol 3. Methodology, ecological, genetical and nutritional effects on growth. New York: Plenum Press, 1986:3–46.
Marshall WA. Human growth and its disorders. London: Academic Press, 1977.
Nelson DA, Kleerekoper M, Peterson EL, Parfitt AM. The progression of spinal osteoporosis can be monitored by serial measurement of stature. Clin Res 1991;39:126A.
Preece MA. Prepubertal and pubertal endocrinology. In: Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human growth: a comprehensive treatise. Vol 2. Postnatal growth: neurobiology. New York: Plenum Press 1986:211–24.
Bourguignon JP. Linear growth as a function of age at onset of puberty and sex steroid dosage: therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 1988;9:467–88.
Pescovitz OH. The endocrinology of the pubertal growth spurt. Acta Paediatr Scand 1990;(Suppl) 367:119–25.
Ohlsson C, Isgaard J, Tornell J, Nilsson A, Isaksson OGP, Lindahl A. Endocrine regulation of longitudinal bone growth. Acta Paediatr Scand 1993;(Suppl) 391:33–40.
Martha PM Jr, Reiter EO. Pubertal growth and growth hormone secretion. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1991;20:165–82.
Silbergeld A, Litwin A, Bruchis S, Varsano I, Laron Z. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy children, adolescents and adults as determined by a radioimmunoassay specific for the synthetic 53–70 peptide region. Clin Endocrinol 1986;25:67–74.
Daughaday WH, Rotwein P. Insulin-like growth factors I and II: peptide, messenger ribonucleic acid and gene structures, serum, and tissue concentrations. Endocr Rev 1989;10:68–91.
Chenu C, Valentin-Opran A, Chavassieux P, Saez S, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Insulin like growth factor I hormonal regulation by growth hormone and by 1,25 (OH)2D3 and activity on human osteoblast-like cells in short-term cultures. Bone 1990;11:81–6.
Kerrigan JR, Rogol AD. The impact of gonadal steroid hormone action on growth hormone secretion during childhood and adolescence. Endocr Rev 1992;13:281–98.
Tupman GS. A study of bone growth in normal children and its relationship to skeletal maturation. J Bone Joint Surg[Br] 1962;44:42–67.
Preece MA. The development of skeletal sex difference at adolescence. In: Russo P, Gass G, editors. Human adaptation: a workshop on growth and physical activity, Sydney: Cumberland College of Health Sciences, Dept. Biological Sciences, 1981:3–14.
Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Hughes PCR, Carter BS. Relative importance of growth hormone and sex steroids for the growth at puberty of trunk length, limb length, and muscle width in growth hormone-deficient children. J Pediatr 1976;89:1000–8.
Aynsley-Green A, Zachmann M, Prader A. Interrelation of the therapeutic effects of growth hormone and testosterone on growth in hypopituitarism. J Pediatr 1976;89:992–9.
Sissons HA. The growth of bone. In: Bourne GH, editor. The biochemistry and physiology of bone. Vol III. Development and growth. New York: Academic Press, 1971:145–80.
Frost HM. Intermediary organization of the skeleton. Vol I. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1986.
Parfitt AM. Bone-forming cells in clinical conditions. In: Hall BK, editor Bone: a treatise. Vol 1. The osteoblast and osteocyte. Caldwell, NJ: Telford Press, 1990:351–429.
Runge H, Fengler F, Franke J, Koall W. Ermittlung des peripheren Knochenmineralgehaltes bei Normalpersonen und Patienten mit verschiedenen Knochenerkrankunge, Bestimmt mit Hilfe der Photonenabsorptionstechnik am Radius. Radiologe 1980;20:505–14.
Landin L, Nilsson BE. Forearm bone mineral content in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981;70:919–23.
DePriester JA, Cole TJ, Bishop NJ. Bone growth and mineralisation in children aged 4 to 10 years. Bone Miner 1991;12:57–65.
Garn SM. The course of bone gain and the phases of bone loss. In: Hohl JC, editor. Orthop Clin North Am 1972;3:503–20.
Parfitt AM, Duncan H. Metabolic bone disease affecting the spine. In: Rothman R, Simeone F, editors. The spine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982:775–905.
Garn SM. The earlier gain and the later loss of cortical bone. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas, 1970.
Krabbe S, Christiansen C. Longitudinal study of calcium metabolism in male puberty. I. Bone mineral content, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, phosphate and calcium. Acta Paediatr Scand 1984;73:745–9.
Krabbe S, Hummer L, Christiansen C. Longitudinal study of calcium metabolism in male puberty. II. Relationship between mineralization and serum testosterone. Acta Paediatr Scand 1984;73:750–5.
McCormick DP, Ponder SW, Fawcett HD, Palmer JL. Spinal bone mineral density in 335 normal and obese children and adolescents: evidence for ethnic and sex differences. J Bone Miner Res 1991;6:507–13.
Kroger H, Kotaniemi A, Kroger L, Alhava E. Development of bone mass and bone density of the spine and femoral neck: a prospective study of 65 children and adolescents. Bone Miner 1993;23:171–82.
Gilsanz V, Gibbens DT, Roe TF, Carlson M, Senac MO, Boechat MI, et al. Vertebral bone density in children: effect of puberty. Radiology 1988;166:847–50.
Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Mora S, Costin G, Goodman WG. Changes in vertebral bone density in black girls and white girls during childhood and puberty. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1597–600.
Katzman DK, Bachrach LK, Carter DR, Marcus R. Clinical and anthropometric correlates of bone mineral acquisition in healthy adolescent girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:1332–9.
Glaistre C, Braillon P, David L, Cochat P, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Measurement of bone mineral content of the lumbar spine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in normal children: correlations with growth parameters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;70:1330–3.
Bonjour J-P, Theintz G, Buchs B, Slosman D, Rizzoli R. Critical years and stages of puberty for spinal and femoral bone mass accumulation during adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Meta 1991;73:555–63.
Theintz G, Buchs B, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Clavien H, Sizonenko PC, Bonjour J-P. Longitudinal monitoring of bone mass accumulation in healthy adolescents: evidence for a marked reduction after 16 years of age at the levels of lumbar spine and femoral neck in female subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;75:1060–5.
Rico H, Revilla M, Villa LF, Hernandez ER, Alvarez de Buergo M, Villa M. Body composition in children and Tanner's stages: a study with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Metabolism 1993;42:967–70.
Dalsky GP. Exercise: its effect on bone mineral content. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1987;30:820–32.
Marcus R, Carter DR. The role of physical activity in bone mass regulation. Adv Sports Med Fitness 1988;1:63–82.
Nilsson BE, Westlin NE. Bone density in athletes. Clin Orthop 1971;77:179–82.
Dalen N, Olsson KE. Bone mineral content and physical activity. Acta Orthop Scand 1974;45:170–4.
Jones HH, Priest JD, Hayes WC, Tichenor CC, Nagel DA. Humeral hypertrophy in response to exercise. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1977;59:204–8.
Brewer V, Meyer BM, Keele MS, Upton SJ, Hagan RD. Role of exercise in prevention of involutional bone loss. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1983;15:445–9.
Stillman RJ, Lohman TG, Slaughter MH, Massey BH. Physical activity and bone mineral content in women aged 30 to 85 years. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986;18:576–80.
Lane NE, Bloch DA, Jones HH, Marshall WH Jr, Wood PD, Fries JF. Long-distance running, bone density, and osteo-arthritis. JAMA 1986;255:1147–51.
Block JE, Friedlander AL, Brooks GA, Steiger P, Stubbs HA, Genant HK. Determinants of bone density among athletes engaged in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activity. J Appl Physiol 1989;67:1100–5.
Virvidakis K, Georgiou E, Korkotsidis A, Ntalles K, Proukakis C. Bone mineral content of junior competitive weightlifters. Int J Sports Med 1990;11:244–6.
Aloia JF, Cohn SH, Ostuni JA, Cane R, Ellis K. Prevention of involutional bone loss by exercise. Ann Intern Med 1978;89:356–8.
Krolner B, Toft B, Nielsen SP, Tondevold E. Physical exercise as prophylaxis against involutional vertebral bone loss: a controlled trial. Clin Sci 1983;64:541–6.
Williams JA, Wagner J, Wasnich R, Heilbrun L. The effect of long-distance running upon appendicular bone mineral content. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984;16:223–7.
Chow R, Harrison JE, Notarius C. Effect of two randomised exercise programmes on bone mass of healthy postmenopausal women. BMJ 1987;295:1441–4.
Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, Slatopolsky E, Lee WC, Birge SJ. Weight-bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1988;108:824–8.
Beverly MC, Rider TA, Evans MJ, Smith R. Local bone mineral response to brief exercise that stresses the skeleton. BMJ 1989;299:233–5.
Gleeson PB, Protas EJ, LeBlanc AD, Schneider VS, Evans HJ. Effects of weight lifting on bone mineral density in premeno-pausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1990;5:153–8.
Notelovitz M, Martin D, Tesar R, Khan FY, Probart C, Fields C, McKenzie L. Estrogen therapy and variable-resistance weight training increase bone mineral in surgically menopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1991;6:583–90.
Smith EL, Gilligan C. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int 1991;(Suppl) 49:S50–4.
Rockwell JC, Sorensen AM, Baker S, Leahey D, Stock JL, Michaels J, Baran DT. Weight training decreases vertebral bone density in premenopausal women: a prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:988–93.
Parfitt AM. Morphologic basis of bone mineral measurements: transient and steady state effects of treatment in osteoporosis [editorial]. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1980;4:273–87.
Frost HM. Perspectives: bone's mechanical usage windows. Bone Miner 1992;19:257–71.
Fiore CE, Cottini E, fargetta C, DiSalvo G, Foti R, Raspagliesi M. The effects of muscle-building exercise on forearm bone mineral content and osteoblast activity in drug-free and anabolic steroids self-administering young men. Bone Miner 1991;13:77–83.
Rubin CT, Bain SD, McLeod KJ. Suppression of the osteogenic response in the aging skeleton. Calcif Tissue Int 1992;50:306–13.
Bertram JEA, Swartz SM. The ‘law of bone transformation’: a case of crying Wolff? Biol Rev 1991;66:245–73.
Forwood MR, Burr DB. Physical activity and bone mass: exercises in futility? Bone Miner 1993;21:89–112.
Nilsson BE, Westlin NE. The bone mineral content in the forearm of women with Colles' fracture. Acta Orthop Scand 1974;45:836–44.
Karjalainen P, Alhava EM. Bone mineral content of the forearm in a healthy population. Acta Radiol Ther Physics Biol 1977;16:199–208.
Huddleston AL, Rockwell D, Kulund DN, Harrison RB. Bone mass in lifetime tennis athletes. JAMA 1980;244:1107–9.
Dequeker J, Van Tendeloo G. Metacarpal bone mass and upper-extremity strength in 18-year-old boys. Invest Radiol 1982;17:427–9.
Mazess RB, Cameron JR. Growth of bone in school children: comparison of radiographic morphometry and photon absorptiometry. Growth 1972;36:77–92.
Slemenda CW, Johnston CC. High intensity activities in young women: site specific bone mass effects among female figure skaters. Bone Miner 1993;20:125–32.
Young N, Formica C, Szmukler G, Seeman E. Bone density at weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing sites in ballet dancers: the effects of exercise, hypogonadism, and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:449–54.
Slemenda CW, Miller JZ, Hui SL, Reister TK, Johnson CC Jr. Role of physical activity in the development of skeletal mass in children. J Bone Miner Res 1991;6:1227–33.
Lane NE, Bloch DA, Hubert HB, Jones H, Simpson U, Fries JF. Running, osteoarthritis, and bone density: initial 2-year longitudinal study. Am J Med 1990;88:452–9.
Slemenda CW. Genetic and environmental influences affecting skeletal growth during puberty. In: Christiansen C, Riis B, editors. Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on osteoporosis, Hong Kong. Aalborg: Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, 1993:212–4.
Seeman E. Reduced bone density in women with fractures: contribution of low peak bone density and rapid bone loss. Osteoporosis Int 1994 (in press).
Johnston CC, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Siu Hui MS, Christian JC, Peacock M. Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N Engl J Med 1992;327:82–7.
Gutin B, Kaspar MJ. Can vigorous exercise play a role in osteoporosis prevention? A review. Osteoporosis Int 1992;2:55–69.
Kirk S, Sharp CF, Elbaum N, Endres DB, Simon SM, Mohler JG, Rude RK. Effect of long distance running on bone mass in women. J Bone Miner Res 1989;4:515–22.
Drinkwater B. Exercise in the prevention of osteoporosis. In: Christiansen C, Riis B, editors. Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on osteoporosis, Hong Kong. Aalborg: Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, 1993:105–8.
Nunamaker DM, Butterweck DM, Provost MT. Fatigue fractures in thoroughbred racehorses: relationships with age, peak bone strain, and training. J Orthop Res 1990;8:604–11.
Bulstrode C, King J, Roper B. What happens to wild animals with broken bones? Lancet 1986;1:29–31.
Crawford WH, Fretz PB. Long bone fractures in large animals: a retrospective study. Vet Surg 1985;14:295–302.
Burr DB, Martin RB. Mechanisms of bone adaptation to the mechanical environment. Triangle 1992;31:59–76.
Biewener AA, Swartz SM, Bertram JEA. Bone modeling during growth: dynamic strain equilibrium in the chick tibiotarsus. Calcif Tissue Int 1986;39:390–5.
Biewener AA. Scaling body support in mammals: limb posture and muscle mechanics. Science 1989;245:45–8.
Alexander RMcN. Factors of safety in the structure of animals. Sci Prog (Oxf) 1981;67:109–30.
Biewener AA. Bone strength in small mammals and bipedal birds: do safety factors change with body size? J Exp Biol 1982;98:289–301.
Frost HM. Bone ‘mass’ and the ‘mechanostat’: a proposal. Anat Rec 1987;219:1–9.
Lanyon LE, Goodship AE, Pye CJ, MacFie JH. Mechanically adaptive bone remodeling. J Biomech 1982;15:141–54.
Currey JD. The mechanical adaptations of bones. Princeton University Press, 1984.
Lanyon LE. The success and failure of the adaptive response to functional load-bearing in averting bone fracture. Bone 1992;13:S17–21.
El Haj AJ. Biomechanical bone cell signalling: is there a grapevine? J Zool (Lond) 1990;220:689–93.
Lanyon LE. Control of bone architecture by functional load bearing. J Bone Miner Res 1992;7:S369–75.
Alffram P-A, Bauer GCH. Epidemiology of fractures of the forearm: a biomechanical investigation of bone strength. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1962;44:105–14.
Bailey DA, Wedge JH, McCulloch RG, Martin Ad, Bernhard-son SC. Epidemiology of fractures of the distal end of the radius in children as associated with growth. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1989;71:1225–31.
Ogden JA. Skeletal injury in the child. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1990:23–63.
Handelsman JE. Management of fractures in children. Surg Clin North Am 1983;63:629.
Landin LA. Fracture patterns in children. Acta Orthop Scand 1983;(Suppl 202) 54:1–63.
Wiley JJ, McIntyre MW. Fracture patterns in pediatric patients. In: Uhthoff H-K, Stahl E, editors. Current concepts of bone fragility. Berlin: Springer, 1980:159–65.
Parfitt AM. Cortical porosity in postmenopausal and adolescent wrist fractures. In: Uhthoff H, Jaworski ZFG, editors. Current concepts of bone fragility. Berlin: Springer, 1986:167–72.
Newton-John HF, Morgan DB. The loss of bone with age, osteoporosis and fractures. Clin Orthop 1970;71:229–52.
Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Mazess RB, Offord KP, Melton LJ III, Differential changes in bone mineral density of the appendicular and axial skeleton with aging: relationship to spinal osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 1981;67:328–35.
Owen RA, Melton LJ III, Johnson KA, Ilstrup DM, Riggs BL. Incidence of Colles' fracture in a North American community. Am J Public Health 1982;72:605–7.
Heaney RP, Recker RR, Saville PD. Menopausal changes in bone remodeling. J Lab Clin Med 1978;92:964–70.
Schiele F, Henny J, Hitz J, Peticlerc C, Gueguen R, Siest G. Total bone and liver alkaline phosphatases in plasma: biological variations and reference limits. Clin Chem 1983;29:634–41.
Stepan JJ, Pospichal J, Presl J, Pacovsky V. Bone loss and biochemical indices of bone remodelling in surgically induced postmenopausal women. Bone 1987;8:279–84.
Stepan JJ, Tesarova A, Havranek T, Jodl J, Formankova J, Pacovsky V. Age and sex dependency of the biochemical indices of bone remodeling. Clin Chim Acta 1985;151:273–83.
Balena R, Shih M-S, Parfitt AM. Bone resorption and formation on the periosteal envelope of the ilium: a histomorphometric study in healthy women. J Bone Miner Res 1992;7:1475–82.
Eastell R, Delmas PD, Hodgson SF, Eriksen EF, Mann KG, Riggs BL. Bone formation rate in older normal women: concurrent assessment with bone histomorphometry, calcium kinetics and biochemical markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;67:741–8.
Delmas PD, Gineyts E, Bertholin A, Garnero P, Marchand F. Immunoassay of pyridinoline crosslink excretion in normal adults and in Paget's disease. J Bone Miner Res 1993;8:643–8.
Parfitt AM. The actions of parathyroid hormone on bone: relation to bone remodelling and turnover, calcium homeostasis and metabolic bone disease. III. PTH and osteoblasts, the relationship between bone turnover and bone loss, and the state of the bones in primary hyperparathyroidism. Metabolism 1976;25:1033–69.
Parfitt AM. Integration of skeletal and mineral homeostasis. In: DeLuca HF, Frost H, Jee W, Johnston C, Parfitt AM, editors. Osteoporosis: recent advances in pathogenesis and treatment. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1981:115–26.
Meema HE. Recognition of cortical bone resorption in metabolic bone disease in vivo. Skel Radiol 1977;2:11.
Wilson JS, Genant HK. In vivo assessment of bone metabolism using the cortical striation index. Invest Radiol 1979;14:131.
Genant HK, Cann CE, Ettinger B, Gordan GS. Quantitative computed tomography of vertebral spongiosa: a sensitive method for detecting early bone loss after oophorectomy. Ann Intern Med 1982;97:699.
Parfitt AM. The two-stage concept of bone loss revisited. Triangle 192;31:99–110.
Parfitt AM. Pathophysiology of bone fragility. In: Christiansen C, Riis B, editors. Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on osteoporosis. Hong Kong. Aalborg: Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg, 1993:164–6.
Parfitt AM, Rao DS, Stanciu J, Villanueva AR, Kleerekoper M, Frame B. Irreversible bone loss in osteomalacia: comparison of radial photon absorptiometry with iliac bone histomorphometry during treatment. J Clin Invest 1985;76:2403–12.
McCalden RW, McGeough JA, Barker MB, Court-Brown CM. Age-related changes in the tensile properties of cortical bone. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1993;75:1193–205.
Beardsworth LJ, Eyre DR, Dickson IR. Changes with age in the urinary excretion of lysyl- and hydroxylysylpyridinoline, two new markers of bone collagen turnover. J Bone Miner Res 1990;5:671–6.
Johansen JS, Giwercman A, Hartwell D, Nielsen CT, Price PA, Christiansen C, Skakkebaek NE. Serum bone Gla-protein as a marker of bone growth in children and adolescents: correlation with age, height, serum insulin-like growth factor I, and serum testosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;67:273–8.
Van Hoof VO, Hoylaerts MF, Geryl H, Van Mullem M, Lepoutre LG, De Broe ME. Age and sex distribution of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes by agarose electrophoresis. Clin Chem 1990;36:875–8.
Frost HM. Tetracycline-based histological analysis of bone remodeling. Calcif Tissue Res 1969;3:211–7.
Glorieux FH, Travers R, Taylor A, Norman M. Normative data for iliac crest bone histomorphometry in growing children. Bone Morphol 1992; abstract 12.
Krabbe S, Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Transbol I. Pubertal growth as reflected by simultaneous changes in bone mineral content and serum alkaline phosphatase. Acta Paediatr Scand 1980;69:49–52.
Krabbe S, Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Transbol I. Effect of puberty on rates of bone growth and mineralisation. Arch Dis Child 1979;54:950–3.
Recker RR, Davies KM, Hinders SM, Heaney RP, Stegman MR, Kimmel DB. Bone gain in young adult women. JAMA 1992;268:2403–8.
Kleerekoper M, Tolia K, Parfitt AM. Nutritional endocrine and demographic aspects of osteoporosis. Orthop Clin North Am 1981;12:547–58.
Currey JD, Butler G. The mechanical properties of bone tissue in children. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1975;57:810–4.
Hagino H, Yamamoto K, Teshima R, Kishimoto H, Nakamura T. Fracture incidence and bone mineral density of the distal radius in Japanese children. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1990;109:262–4.
Landin L, Nilsson BE. Bone mineral content in children with fractures. Clin Orthop 1983;178:292–6.
Chan GM, Hess M, Hollis J, Book LS. Bone mineral status in childhood accidental fractures. Am J Dis Child 1984;138:569–70.
Cook SD, Harding AF, Morgan EL, Doucet HJ, Bennett JT, O'Brien M, Thomas KA. Association of bone mineral density and pediatric fractures. J Pediatr Orthop 1987;7:424–7.
Peacock M. Calcium absorption efficiency and calcium requirements in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:S261–5.
Leitch I, Aitken FC. The estimation of calcium requirement: a re-examination. Nutr Abstr Rev 1959;29:393–411.
Hegsted DM. Major minerals. Section A. Calcium and phosphorus. In: Goodhart RS, Shils ME, editors. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1973:268–86.
Matkovic V. Calcium metabolism and calcium requirements during skeletal modeling and consolidation of bone mass. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:S245–60.
Kanis JA. Calcium requirements for optimal skeletal health in women. Calcif Tissue Int 1991:(Suppl)49:S33–41.
Heaney RP, Barger-Lux J. Calcium and common sense. New York: Doubleday, 1988.
Cowan RL, Hartsook EW, Whelan JB. Calcium-strontium metabolism in white-tailed deer as related to age and antler growth. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1968;129:733–7.
Parfitt AM, Kleerekoper M. The divalent ion homeostatic system: physiology and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and bone. In: Maxwell M, Kleeman CR, editors. Clinical disorders of fluid and electrolyte metabolism. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1980:269–398.
Parfitt AM. Bone age, mineral density and fatigue damage. Calcif Tissue Int 1993;53(Suppl 1):S 82–6.
Marcus R. The relationship of dietary calcium to the maintenance of skeletal integrity in man: an interface of endocrinology and nutrition. Metabolism 1982;31:93–102.
Martin AD, Silverthorn KG, Houston CS, Bernhardson S, Wajda A, Roos LL. The incidence of fracture of the proximal femur in two million Canadians from 1972 to 1984: projections for Canada in the year 2006. Clin Orthop 1991;266:111–8.
Boyce WJ, Vessey MP. Habitual physical inertia and other factors in relation to risk of fracture of the proximal femur. Age Ageing 1988;17:319–27.
Cooper C, Barker DJP, Wickham C. Physical activity, muscle strength, and calcium intake in fracture of the proximal femur in Britain. BMJ 1988;297:1443–6.
Farmer ME, Harris T, Madans JH, Wallace RB, Cornoni-Huntley J, White LR. Anthropometric indicators and hip fracture: the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989;37:9–16.
Dent CE. Keynote address: Problems in metabolic bone disease. In: Frame B, Parfitt AM, Duncan H, editors. Clinical aspects of metabolic bone disease. Proceedings of the international symposium on clinical aspects of metabolic bone disease, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit 1972, pp 1–7.