Identification ofMycobacterium shimoidei in a tuberculosis-like cavity by 16S ribosomal DNA direct sequencing

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A new, well-documented case ofMycobacterium shimoidei infection is reported. This bacterium was isolated from a patient with preexisting pulmonary lesions who developed a tuberculosis-like cavity in the lung. Isolation of fewer than ten strains, not epidemiologically related, has been reported worldwide; all originated from human pulmonary samples. Identification of the strain described here was first accomplished by 16S rDNA direct sequencing after in vitro amplification. This method allows rapid identification of unusual bacteria. The identification was confirmed by specific phenotypical tests and by chromatographic methods.