Psychrophilic microorganisms and their cold-active enzymes
- JE Brenchley
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The earth's vast and varied cold environments could be rich sources of psychrophilic microorganisms growing at 5°C or below. Unfortunately, the diversity, physiology and potential of these organisms have largely been overlooked. This article focuses on psychrophiles and their cold-active enzymes and emphasizes how future studies could give basic insight into protein structure and could yield industrially useful enzymes. It presents an overview of the characterization of psychrophiles and their growth properties, a summary of biochemical work with coldactive enzymes, a description of comparisons of enzymes with different temperature optima, and a preview of uses for cold-active enzymes in biotechnology.
- Adams MWW and RM Kelly. 1995. Enzymes from microorganisms in extreme environments. Chem Eng News 18: 32–42.
- Adams MWW, FB Perler and RM Kelly. 1995. Extremozymes: expanding the limits of biocatalysis. Bio/technology 13: 662–668.
- Arpigny JL, G Feller and C Gerday. 1993. Cloning, sequence and structural features of a lipase from the antarctic facultative psychrophilePsychrobacter immobilis B10. Biochim Biophys Acta 1171: 331–333.
- Bernardet J-F and B Kerouault. 1989. Phenotypic and genomic studies of ‘Cytophaga psychrophila’ isolated from diseased rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Appl Environ Microbiol 55: 1796–1800.
- Davail S, G Feller, E Narinx and C Gerday. 1994. Cold adaptation of proteins. J Biol Chem 269: 17448–17453.
- Felip M, B Sattler, R Psenner and J Catalan. 1995. Highly active microbial communities in the ice and snow cover of high mountain lakes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 2394–2401.
- Feller G, T Lonhienne, C Deroanne, C Libioulle, J Van Beeumen and C Gerday. 1992. Purification, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the thermolabile α-amylase from the Antarctic psychrotrophAlteromonas haloplanctis A23. J Biol Chem 267: 5217–5221.
- Feller G, M Thiry, J-L Arpigny, M Mergeay and C Gerday. 1990. Lipases from psychrotrophic antarctic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66: 239–244.
- Feller G, M Thiry and C Gerday. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of the lipase genelip2 from the antarctic psychrotrophMoraxella TA144 and site-specific mutagenesis of the conserved serine and histidine residues. DNA Cell Biol 10: 381–388.
- Gounot A-M. 1986. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms. Experientia 42: 1192–1197.
- Gounot A-M. 1991. Bacterial life at low temperature: physiological aspects and biotechnological implications. J Appl Bacteriol 71: 386–397.
- Griffiths MW and DD Muir. 1978. Properties of a thermostable β-galactosidase from a thermophilicBacillus: comparison of the enzyme activity of whole cells, purified enzyme and immobilised whole cells. J Sci Fd Agric 29: 753–761.
- Gugi B, N Orange, F Hellio, JF Burini, C Guillou, F Leriche and JF Guespin-Michel. 1991. Effect of growth temperature on several exported enzyme activities in the psychrotrophic bacteriumPseudomonas fluorescens. J Bacteriol 173: 3814–3820.
- Gutshall K, D Trimbur, J Kasmir and J Brenchley. 1995. Analysis of a novel gene and β-galactosidase isozyme from a psychrotrophicArthrobacter isolate. J Bacteriol 177: 1981–1988.
- Hamamoto T, K Motohiro, K Horikoshi and T Kudo. 1994. Characterization of a protease from a psychrotrophPseudomonas fluorescens 114. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 3878–3880.
- Herbert RA. 1986. The ecology and physiology of psychrophilic microorganisms. In: Microbes in Extreme Environments (Herbert and Codd, eds), pp 1–23, Academic Press, London.
- Ingraham JL. 1958. Growth of psychrophilic bacteria. J Bacteriol 76: 75–80.
- Inniss WE and JL Ingraham. 1978. Microbial life at low temperatures: mechanisms and molecular aspects. In: Microbial Life in Extreme Environments (Kushner DJ, ed), pp 74–104, Academic Press, New York.
- Jaenicke R. 1990 Protein structure and function at low temperatures. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 326: 535–553.
- Jones LP, RY Morita and RR Becker. 1979. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase fromVibrio marinus, a psychrophilic marine bacterium. Zeitschrift fur Allgemeine Mikrobiologie 19: 97–106.
- Kimura T and K Horikoshi. 1988. Isolation of bacteria which can grow at both high pH and low temperature. Appl Environ Microbiol 54: 1066–1067.
- Kobori H, CW Sullivan and H Shizuya. 1984. Heat-labile alkaline phosphatase from antarctic bacteria: rapid 5′ end-labeling of nucleic acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 6691–6695.
- Larkin JM and JL Stokes. 1966. Isolation of psychrophilic species ofBacillus. J Bacteriol 91: 1667–1671.
- Loveland J and J Brenchley. 1994. Characterization of extracellular phosphatases produced by psychrotrophic soil isolates. Abstr Gen Mtg ASM I-104: 272.
- Loveland J, K Gutshall, J Kasmir, P Prema and JE Brenchley. 1994. Characterization of psychrotrophic microorganisms producing β-galactosidase activities. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 12–18.
- Margesin R, N Palma, F Knauseder and F Schinner. 1992. Purification and characterization of an alkaline serine protease produced by a psychrotrophicBacillus sp. J Biotechnology 24: 203–206.
- Margesin R and F Schinner. 1991. Characterization of a metalloprotease from psychrophilicXanthomonas maltophilia. FEMS Microbiol Lett 79: 257–262.
- Margesin R and F Schinner. 1992. A comparison of extracellular proteases from three psychrotrophic strains ofPseudomonas fluorescens. J Gen Appl Microbiol 38: 209–225.
- Margesin R and F Schinner. 1994. Properties of cold-adapted microorganisms and their potential role in biotechnology. J Biotechnology 33: 1–14.
- Menendez-Arias L and P Argos. 1989. Engineering protein thermal stability. Sequence statistics point to residue substitutions in alphahelices. J Mol Biol 206: 397–406.
- Mitchell P, HC Yen and P Mathemeier. 1985. Properties of lactate dehydrogenase in a psychrophilic marine bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol 49: 1332–1334.
- Morita RY. 1975. Psychrophilic bacteria. Bacteriol Rev 39: 144–167.
- Morita RY and LJ Albright. 1965. Cell yields ofVibrio marinus, an obligate psychrophile, at low temperature. Can J Microbiol 11: 221–227.
- Nedwell DB and M Rutter. 1994. Influence of temperature on growth rate and competition between two psychrotolerant antarctic bacteria: low temperature diminishes affinity for substrate uptake. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 1984–1992.
- Neidhardt FC, JL Ingraham and M Schaechter. 1990. Physiology of the Bacterial Cell. 1st edn, p 506. Sinauer Assoc Inc, Sunderland, MA.
- Rentier-Delrue F, SC Mande, S Moyens, P Terpstra, V Mainfroid, K Goraj, M Lion, WGJ Hol and JA Martial. 1993. Cloning and over-expression of the triosephosphate isomerase genes from psychrophilic and thermophilic bacteria. J Mol Biol 229: 85–93.
- Russell NJ. 1990. Cold adaption of micro-organisms. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 326: 595–611.
- Russell NJ. 1992. Physiology and molecular biology of psychrophilic micro-organisms. In: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Extremophiles (Herbert RA and RJ Sharp, eds), pp 203–224, Blackie, Glasgow.
- Russell NJ. 1993. Biochemical differences between psychrophilic and psychrotolerant microorganisms. In: Trends Microb Ecol (Guerrero R and C Pedrós-Alió, eds), pp 29–32, Spanish Society for Microbiology.
- Rutter M and DB Nedwell. 1994. Influence of changing temperature on growth rate and competition between two psychrotolerant antarctic bacteria: competition and survival in non-steady-state temperature environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 1993–2002.
- Schlatter D, O Kriech, F Suter and H Zuber. 1987. The primary structure of the psychrophilic lactate dehydrogenase fromBacillus psychrosaccharolyticus. Biol Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 368: 1435–1446.
- Sinclair NA and JL Stokes. 1964. Isolation of obligately anaerobic psychrophilic bacteria. J Bacteriol 87: 562–565.
- Staley JT, RL Irgens and RP Herwig. 1989. Gas vacuolate bacteria from the sea ice of Antarctica. Appl Environ Microbiol 55: 1033–1036.
- Trimbur DE, KR Gutshall, P Prema and JE Brenchley. 1994. Characterization of a psychrotrophicArthrobacter gene and its cold-active β-galactosidase. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 4544–4552.
- Vckovski V, D Schlatter and H Zuber. 1990. Structure and function ofl-lactate dehydrogenases from thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, IX. Biol Chem 371: 103–110.
- Whitaker JR. 1990. New and future uses of enzymes in food processing. Food Biotechnology 4: 669–697.
- Zuber H. 1988. Temperature adaptation of lactate dehydrogenase structural, functional and genetic aspects. Biophys Chem 29: 171–179.
- Psychrophilic microorganisms and their cold-active enzymes
Journal of Industrial Microbiology
Volume 17, Issue 5-6 , pp 432-437
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- cold-active enzymes
- Industry Sectors
- JE Brenchley (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Penn State University, 209 S Frear Laboratory, 16802, University Park, PA, USA