Sensitivity of coliphage T1 to nickel in fresh and salt waters
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Coliphage T1 was more sensitive than its host bacterium,Escherichia coli B, to nickel (Ni). A 5-h exposure to 100 ppm Ni in nutrient broth did not adversely affect T1, whereas 10 and 20 ppm Ni extended the lag phase of growth ofE. coli B, and no growth occurred with 40 or more ppm Ni. 5 ppm Ni enhanced the survival (after 4 wk) of T1 in sea or simulated estuarine water but was toxic (i.e., reduced viral infectivity) in lake water; 50 ppm Ni was not toxic to T1 in sea water, was moderately toxic in estuarine water, but was highly toxic in lake water; and 100 ppm Ni was toxic in all systems, with the sequence of loss in viral infectivity being lake > estuarine > sea water. 100 ppm Ni was not toxic to T1 in nutrient broth, even after 3 wk of exposure, probably because of the protective effect of the organic compounds in the broth.
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- Sensitivity of coliphage T1 to nickel in fresh and salt waters
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