Gender role conflict, gender-typed characteristics, self-concepts, and sport socialization in female athletes and nonathletes
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- Miller, J.L. & Levy, G.D. Sex Roles (1996) 35: 111. doi:10.1007/BF01548178
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Gender role conflict, masculinity, femininity, physical appearance self-concept, athletic competence self-concept, body image self-concept, and athletic participation by parents among female athletes and nonathletes were examined in 76 female athletes and 69 female nonathletes (N= 145). Similar to previous research, results indicated no significant differences in the gender role conflict of female athletes and nonathletes. Results also indicated that, as predicted, female athletes exhibited significantly more positive athletic competence self-concept, body image self-concept, and athletic participation by parents than female nonathletes. Both participants' body image self-concept and parental sport participation were significantly and inversely related to their amount of gender role conflict. Implications for differences in the social personality and gender role development of female athletes and nonathletes are discussed.