African American men's Gender Role Conflict: The significance of racial identity
- Jay C. Wade
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
This study examined the relationships between racial identity attitudes and gender role conflict in a sample of 95 African American men ages 23–80 years old. Participants completed the 1981 Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale by Parham and Helms and the 1986 Gender Role Conflict Scale by O'Neil, Helms, Gable, David, and Wrightsman. Results indicated that racial identity attitudes were differentially related to patterns of gender role conflict when racial identity is externally defined. However, an internally defined racial identity had no relationship to gender role conflict. Results are discussed in terms of the significance of racial identity for understanding African American men's conflict associated with traditional male gender role standards and expectations.
- Austin, N. L., Carter, R. T., & Vaux, A. (1990). The role of racial identity in Black student's attitudes toward counseling and counseling centers.Journal of College Student Development, 31 237–244.
- Bowman, P. J. (1990). Coping with provider role strain: Adaptive cultural resources among Black husband-fathers.Journal of Black Psychology, 16(2), 1–21.
- Brod, H. (Ed.). (1987).The making of masculinities: The new men's studies. Winchester, MA: Allen & Unwin.
- Campbell, J. L., & Snow, B. M. (1992). Gender role conflict and family environment as predictors of men's marital satisfaction.Journal of Family Psychology, 6 84–87.
- Carter, R. T., & Helms, J. E. (1987). The relationship of Black value-orientations to racial identity attitudes.Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 19 185–195.
- Carter, R. T., & Helms, J. E. (1988). The relationship between racial identity and social class.Journal of Negro Education, 57 22–30.
- Cazenave, N. A. (1984). Race, socioeconomic status, and age: The social context of American masculinity.Sex Roles, 11 639–656.
- Chartier, B. M., Graff, L. A., & Arnold, W. J. (1986, June).Males' socialization and hostility toward women. Paper presented at the 47th annual meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario.
- Clatterbaugh, K. C. (1990).Contemporary perspectives on masculinity: Men, women, and politics in modern society. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Connell, R. W. (1987).Gender and power. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Cournoyer, R. J., & Mahalik, J. R. (1995). Cross-sectional study of gender role conflict examining college-aged and middle-aged men.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 11–19.
- Cross, W. E., Jr. (1971). Negro-to-Black conversion experience: Toward a psychology of Black liberation.Black World, 20 13–27.
- Franklin, C. W., II (1987). Surviving the institutional decimation of Black males: Causes, consequences, and intervention. In H. Brod (Ed.),The making of masculinities: The new men's studies. Boston: Allen and Unwin.
- Good, G. E., & Mintz, L. M. (1990). Gender-role conflict and depression in college men: Evidence for compounded risk.Journal of Counseling and Development, 69 17–21.
- Good, G. E., Robertson, J. M., O'Neil, J. M., Fitzgerald, L. F., Stevens, M., DeBord, K. A., Bartels, K. M., & Braverman, D. G. (1995). Male gender role conflict: Psychometric issues and relations to psychological distress.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 3–10.
- Hall, W. S., Cross, W. E., & Freedle, R. (1972). Stages in the development of Black awareness: An exploratory investigation. In R. L. Jones (Ed.),Black psychology. New York: Harper & Row.
- Hefner, R., Rebecca, M., & Oleshansky B. (1975). Development of sex role transcendence.Human Development, 18 143–158.
- Helms, J. E. (1986). Expanding racial identity theory to cover counseling process.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33 62–64.
- Helms, J. E. (1989). Considering some methodological issues in racial identity counseling research.The Counseling Psychologist, 17 227–252.
- Helms, J. E. (Ed.). (1990).Black and White racial identity: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Greenwood Press.
- Helms, J. E. (1993, September).Toward an approach for assessing racial identity. Paper presented at the Buros-Nebraska Symposium on Measurement and Testing, Lincoln, NB.
- Helms, J. E., & Carter, R. T. (1991). Relationships of White and Black racial identity attitudes and demographic similarity to counselor preferences.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38 446–457.
- Heppner, P. P. (1995). On gender role conflict in men—Future directions and implications for counseling: Comment on Good et al. (1995) and Cournoyer and Mahalik (1995).Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 20–23.
- Hunter, A. G., & Davis, J. E. (1992). Constructing gender: An exploration of Afro-American men's conceptualization of manhood.Gender & Society, 6 464–479.
- Hunter, A. G., & Davis, J. E. (1994). Hidden voices of Black men: The meaning, structure, and complexity of manhood.Journal of Black Studies, 25 20–40.
- Kimmel, M. S. (1987). Rethinking “masculinity”: New directions in research. In M. S. Kimmel (Ed.),Changing men: New directions in research on men and masculinity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- Kimmel, M. S., & Messner, M. (1989). Introduction. In M. S. Kimmel & M. Messner (Eds.),Men's lives. New York: Macmillan.
- Kimmel, M. S., & Messner, M. (1992). Introduction. In M. S. Kimmel & M. Messner (Eds.),Men's lives (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
- Majors, R., & Billson, J. M. (1992).Cool pose: The dilemmas of Black manhood in America. New York: Lexington Books.
- O'Neil, J. M., Helms, B. J., Gable, R. K., David, L., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1986). Gender-role conflict scale: College men's fear of femininity.Sex Roles, 14 335–350.
- O'Neil, J. M., & Owen, S. V. (1994).The manual for the Gender Role Conflict Scale. Storrs, CT: School of Family Studies, University of Connecticut.
- O'Neil, J. M., Good, G. E., & Holmes, S. (1995). Fifteen years of theory and research on men's gender role conflict: New paradigms for empirical research. In R. Levant & W. Pollack (Eds.),The new psychology of men. New York: Basic Books.
- Parham, T. A., & Helms, J. E. (1981). The influence of Black students' racial identity attitudes on preferences for counselor's race.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28 250–257.
- Parham, T. A., & Helms, J. E. (1985a). Relation of racial identity attitudes to self-actualization and affective states of Black students.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32 431–440.
- Parham, T. A., & Helms, J. E. (1985b). Attitudes of racial identity and self-esteem in Black students: An exploratory investigation.Journal of College Student Personnel, 26 143–147.
- Pleck, J. H., Sonenstein, F. L., & Ku, L. C. (1993). Masculinity ideology and its correlates. In S. Oskamp & M. Costanzo (Eds.),Gender issues in contemporary society. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
- Pomales, J., Caliborn, C. D., & LaFromboise, T. D. (1986). Effects of Black students' racial identity on perceptions of White counselors varying in cultural sensitivity.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33 57–61.
- Pyant, C. T., & Yanico, B. J. (1991). Relationship of racial identity and gender role attitudes of Black women's psychological well-being.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38 315–322.
- Rebecca, M., Hefner, R., & Oleshansky, B. (1976). A model of sex role ranscendence.Journal of Social Issues, 32 197–206.
- Sandoval, S. R., Gutkin, T. B., & Naumann, W. C. (1994).Racial identity attitudes and school performance among African American high school students. Unpublished manuscript.
- Segal, L. (1990).Slow motion: Changing masculinities, changing men. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
- Sharpe, M. J., & Heppner, P. P. (1991). Gender role, gender-role conflict, and psychological well-being in men.Journal of Counseling Psychologyt, 38 323–330.
- Staples, R. (1978). Masculinity and race: The dual dilemma of Black men.Journal of Social Issues, 34 169–183.
- Stillson, R. W., O'Neil, J. M., & Owen, S. V. (1991). Predictors of adult men's gender-role conflict: Race, class, unemployment, age, instrumentality-expressiveness, and personal strain.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38 358–464.
- Thompson, E. H., Pleck, J. H., & Ferrera, D. L. (1992). Men and masculinities: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity related constructs.Sex Roles, 27 573–607.
- Wade, J. C. (1995). Middle-class African American men's gender role perceptions and gender role conflict: The influence of cultural desirability.Journal of African American Men, 1,(2).
- Weathers, P. L., Furlong, M. J., & Solorzano, D. (1993). Mail survey research in counseling psychology: Current practice and suggested guidelines.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40 238–244.
- African American men's Gender Role Conflict: The significance of racial identity
Volume 34, Issue 1-2 , pp 17-33
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Jay C. Wade (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Counseling and Personnel Services, College of Education, University of Maryland, 20742, College Park, MD, USA