Gender roles in animated cartoons: Has the picture changed in 20 years?
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
This study is an update of research done primarily in the 1970s on gender representation in children's cartoons. In the present study, 175 episodes of 41 different cartoons were coded for numbers and demographic characteristics of male, female, and androgynous characters. Behaviors, communication characteristics, and total talk time of male and female characters were coded, along with copyright year and country of origin. Results indicated notable discrepancies between prominence and portrayal of male and female characters. Both male and female characters were portrayed stereotypically. Compared to female characters, male characters were given much more prominence, appeared more frequently, engaged in more of almost all of the noted behaviors, and talked significantly more. When male or female behavior and communication variables were divided by number of male or female characters or by total talk time, results indicated consistency with gender role stereotypes. Comparisons of pre- and post-1980 cartoons, however, indicated significant change toward a less stereotypical portrayal of the characters, particularly female characters.
- Atkin, D. (1991) The evolution of television series addressing single women, 1966–1990. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 35: pp. 517-523
- Baker, R. K., Ball, S. J. (1969) Mass media and violence: A staff report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, 9. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
- Bandura, A. (1977) Social learning theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
- Barcus, F. E. (1983) Images of life on children's television: Sex roles, minorities, and families. Praeger, New York
- Bretl, D. J., Cantor, J. (1988) The portrayal of men and women in U.S. television commercials: a recent content analysis and trends over 15 years. Sex Roles 18: pp. 595-609
- Carter, B. (1991, May 1). “Children's TV, where boys are king.”The New York Times, Section A, p. 1.
- Courtney, A. E., Whipple, T. W. (1983) Sex stereotyping in advertising. Lexington Books, Lexington, MA
- Dominick, J. R. (1979) The portrayal of women in prime time, 1953–1977. Sex Roles 5: pp. 405-411
- Downs, A. C. (1981) Sex-role stereotyping on prime-time television. The Journal of Genetic Psychology 138: pp. 253-258
- Durkin, K. (1985) Television and sex-role acquisition: I. Content. British Journal of Social Psychology 24: pp. 101-113
- Davidson, E. S., Yasuna, A., Tower, A. (1979) The effects of television cartoons on sex-role stereotyping in young girls. Child Development 50: pp. 597-600
- Forge, K. L. S., Phemister, S. (1987) The effect of prosocial cartoons on preschool children. Child Study Journal 17: pp. 83-88
- Frueh, T., McGhee, P. E. (1975) Traditional sex role development and amount of time spent watching television. Developmental Psychology 11: pp. 109
- Hansen, C. H., Hansen, R. D. (1988) How rock music can change what is seen when boy meets girl: priming stereotypic appraisal of social interactions. Sex Roles 19: pp. 287-316
- Hapkiewicz, W. G. (1979) Children's reactions to cartoon violence. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 8: pp. 30-34
- Japp, P. M. (1991) Gender and work in the 1980s: television's working women as displaced persons. Women's Studies in Communication 14: pp. 49-74
- Kahn, E. M. (1991, March 3). Cartoons for a small planet.The New York Times, Section 2, p. 29.
- Levinson, R. M. (1975) From Olive Oyl to Sweet Polly Purebred: Sex role stereotypes and televised cartoons. Journal of Popular Culture 9: pp. 561-572
- Mayes, S. L., Valentine, K. B. (1979) Sex role stereotyping in Saturday morning cartoon shows. Journal of Broadcasting 23: pp. 41-50
- McArthur, L. Z., Resko, B. G. (1975) The portrayal of men and women in American television commercials. The Journal of Social Psychology 97: pp. 208-220
- Pearson, J. C., Turner, L. H., Todd-Mancillas, T. (1991) Gender and communication. Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque, IA
- Peyton, R. B., & Wong, C.. J. (1992, January 21). Quoted in Freedman, B., No, Virginia, Bambi isn't a human.Detroit Free Press, Section B, p. 1.
- Remafedi, G. (1990) Study group report on the impact of television portrayals of gender roles on youth. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 11: pp. 59-61
- Rosenkrantz, P., Vogel, S., Bee, H., Braverman, I. (1968) Sex-role stereotypes and self-concepts in college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 32: pp. 287-295
- Signorielli, N. (1989) Television and conceptions about sex roles: maintaining conventionality and the status quo. Sex Roles 21: pp. 341-360
- Signorielli, N. (1990) Children, television and gender roles: messages and impact. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 11: pp. 50-58
- Sternglanz, S. H., Serbin, L. A. (1974) Sex role stereotyping in children's television programs. Developmental Psychology 10: pp. 710-715
- Streicher, H. W. (1974) The girls in the cartoons. Journal of Communication 24: pp. 125-129
- Tannen, D. (199) You just don't understand: Women and men in conversation. Ballantine, New York
- Berg, L. H., Streckfuss, D. (1992) Prime-time television's portrayal of women and the world of work: a demographic profile. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 36: pp. 195-208
- Williams, T. M. (1981) How and what do children learn from television?. Human Communication Research 17: pp. 180-192
- Gender roles in animated cartoons: Has the picture changed in 20 years?
Volume 32, Issue 9-10 , pp 651-673
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors