Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients: A longitudinal study
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The physical and hormonal characteristics of 60 male-to-female transsexuals and 30 female-to-male transsexuals were measured before or during treatment with commonly used forms and dosages of hormones. Only two patients (both female-to-male) had either a congenital defect in hormonal production or abnormal genital development. Patients were seen at 3- to 6-month intervals for an average of 18 months. The response to therapy was examined over time; physical parameters, hormonal concentrations, liver function tests, lipids, and glucose were measured. Three patients were changed from ethinyl estradiol to conjugated estrogen because of liver enzyme elevations. Ethinyl estradiol (0.1–0.5 mg/day) was equal to conjugated estrogen (7.5–10 mg/day) in its ability to suppress testosterone and gonadotropins and to promote breast growth. Maximum breast growth required 2 years of therapy. During treatment with testosterone, female-to-male transsexuals had a significant mild elevation of cholesterol and triglyceride. The female-to-male transsexuals receiving testosterone cypionate, 200 mg every 2 weeks, ceased to have menstrual periods and became progressively masculinized. A mean maximal clitoral length of 4.6 cm which achieved by 1 year of therapy. Based on the data generated by this study, we recommend as hormonal therapy 0.1–0.5 mg/day of ethinyl estradiol or 7.5–10 mg/day of conjugated estrogen for male-to-female transsexuals, and intramuscular testosterone cypionate, 200 mg every 2 weeks, for female-to-male transsexuals.
- Aiman, J., and Boyar, R. M. (1982). Testicular function in transsexual men.Arch. Sex. Behav. 11: 171–179.
- Benjamin, H. (1966).The Transsexual Phenomenon. Julian Press, New York, pp. 92–99, 154–155.
- Boyar, R. M., and Aiman, J. (1982). The 24-hour secretory pattern of LH and the response to LHRH in transsexual men.Arch. Sex. Behav. 11: 157–169.
- Cooke, I. D. (1978).The Role of Estrogen/Progesterone in the Management of the Menopause. University Park Press, Baltimore.
- Davey, D. A. (1976). The menopause and postmenopause. In Dewhurst, C. J. (ed.),Integrated Obstetrics and Gynecology for Postgraduates Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 635–649.
- Dorner, G., Rohde, W., Seidel, K., Haas, W., and Schott, G. (1976). On the evocability of a positive estrogen feedback action on LH secretion in transsexual men and women.Endokrinologie 67: 20–25.
- Fotherby, K. (1976). Pharmacology of natural and synthetic estrogens. In Campbell, S. (ed.),The Management of the Menopause and Post-Menopausal Years. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 87–95.
- Futterweit, W. (1980). Endocrine management of transsexual: Hormonal profiles of serum prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol.N. Y. State J. Med. 80: 1260–1264.
- Hamburger, C. (1969). Endocrine treatment of male and female transsexualism. In Green, R., and Money, J. (eds.),Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, pp. 291–307.
- Hamilton, W., and Chapman, P. H. (1977). Biochemical determinations in gender identity.Paediatr. Padol. 5: 69–81.
- Jones, J. R., and Samimy, J. (1973). Plasma testosterone levels and female transsexualism.Arch. Sex. Behav. 2: 251–256.
- Kupperman, H. S., Blatt, M. H. G., Wiesbader, H., and Filler, W. (1953). Comparative clinical evaluation of estrogenic preparations by the menopausal and amenorrheal indices.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 13: 688–703.
- Leavitt, F., Berger, J. C., Hoeppner, J. A., and Northrop, G. (1980). Presurgical adjustment in male transsexuals with and without homonal treatment.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 168: 693–697.
- Meyer, III, W. J., Finkelstein, J. W., Stuart, C. A., Webb, A., Smith, E. R., Payer, A. F., and walker, P. A. (1981). Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients during hormonal therapy.Arch. Sex. Behav. 10: 347–356.
- Meyer, III, W. J., Walker, P. A., and Suplee, Z. R. (1981). A survey of transsexual hormonal treatment in twenty gender treatment centers.J. Sex. Res. 17: 344–349.
- Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L. (1977). Sex hormones and male homosexuality in comparative perspective.Arch. Sex. Behav. 6: 297–325.
- Meyer-Bahlberg, H. F. L. (1979). Sex hormones and female homosexuality: A critical examination.Arch. Sex. Behav. 8: 101–119.
- Migeon, C. J. (1969). Therapy for the control of postcastration symptoms. In Green, R., and Money, J. (eds.),Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, pp. 353–354.
- Migeon, C. J., Rivarola, M. A., and Forest, M. G. (1968). Studies of androgens in transsexual subjects: Effects of estrogen therapy.Johns Hopkins Med. J. 123: 128–133.
- Money, J., and Walker, P. (1977). Counseling the transsexual. In Money, J., and Musaph, H. (eds.),Handbook of Sexology Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 1289–1301.
- Schonfeld, W. A. (1943). Primary and secondary sexual characteristics: Study of their development in males from birth through maturity, with biometric study of penis and testes.Am. J. Dis. Child. 65: 535–549.
- Sipova, I., and Starka, L. (1977). Plasma testosterone values in transsexual women.Arch. Sex. Behav. 6: 477–481.
- Starka, L., Sipova, I., and Hynie, J. (1975). Plasma testosterone in male transsexuals and homosexuals.J. Sex. Res. 11: 132–138.
- Walker, P., Berger, J., Green, R., Laub, D., Reynolds, C., and Wollman, L. (1985). Standards of Care. The hormonal and surgical sex reassignment of gender dysphoric persons.Arch. Sex. Behav. 14: 79–90.
- Walker, P. A., Meyer, W. J., Emory, L. E., and Rubin, A. L. (1984). Antiandrogen treatment of the paraphiliac. In Stancer, H. C., Garfinkel, P. E., and Rakoff, V. M. (eds.),Guidelines for the Use of Psychotropic Drugs. Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY, pp. 427–443.
- Zachmann, M., Prader, A., Kind, H. P., Hafliger, H., and Budliger, H. (1974). Testicular volume during adolescence: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.Helv. Paediatr. Acta 29: 61–72.
- Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients: A longitudinal study
Archives of Sexual Behavior
Volume 15, Issue 2 , pp 121-138
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 77550, Galveston, Texas, USA
- 2. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 77550, Galveston, Texas, USA
- 4. Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 77550, Galveston, Texas, USA