Cross-gender identity in transvestites and male transsexuals
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A self-theory of transvestism and secondary transsexuality in which gender identity is a major self subsystem has been advanced in previous research. Within this framework transsexuals and transvestites were compared on a number of developmental characteristics. While early-onset transsexuals (n =103) were dominantly female, both late-onset transsexuals (n =52) and transvestites (n =36) showed much more feminine behavior than expected. This was interpreted as a sign that they were already developing a feminine gender identity in their early years. Implications for this theory were discussed: (i) The assumption of two gender identity subsystems (a masculine and a feminine) in any human being, which can have any relative strength; (ii) the incorporation of the concept of expression of an identity subsystem, which can be unconditional or conditional (i.e., expression of aspects of the self only if certain conditions are fulfilled) and which has the function of self-seeking. Two continua are proposed. One ranges from a strong feminine gender identity subsystem that is unconditionally expressed to weak unexpressed femininity. The second ranges from a strong and unconditionally expressed masculinity to a weak masculinity. Male-to-female transsexuals (and “normal” females) are characterized by a strong unconditionally expressed feminine gender identity in combination with a weak unexpressed masculinity. Transvestism is a position in between in which both masculinity and femininity are conditionally expressed.
- Benjamin, H. (1966).The Transsexual Phenomenon Julian Press, New York.
- Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H., and Steiner, B. W. (1987). Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria.Arch. Sex. Behav. 16: 139–152.
- Buhrich, N., and McConaghy, N. (1977). The clinical syndromes of femmiphilic transvestism.Arch. Sex. Behav. 6: 397–412.
- Doctor, R. F. (1988).Transvestites and Transsexuals: Towards a Theory of Cross-Gender Behavior Plenum Press, New York.
- Dolan, J. (1987). Transsexualism: Syndrome or symptom.Can. J. Psychiat. 32: 666–673.
- Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept revisited: Or a theory of a theory.Am. Psychol. 28: 404–416.
- Hilgard, E. R. (1977).Divided Consciousness Multiple Controls in Human Thoughts and Action Wiley, New York.
- Hoytink, T. A. E., Doorn, C. D., and Verschoor, A. M. (1991).Gender Identity Development in Homosexual and Heterosexual Male Transsexuals Internal publication, Free University, Amsterdam.
- James, W. (1950).Principles of Psychology Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
- Johnson, S. L, and Hunt, D. D. (1990). The relationship of male transsexual typology to psychological adjustment.Arch. Sex. Behav. 19: 349–360.
- Langevin, R. (1985). The meanings of cross-dressing. In Steiner, B. W. (ed.),Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management Plenum Press, New York, pp. 207–225.
- Levine, S. B., and Lothstein, L. (1981). Transsexualism or the gender dysphoria syndromes.J. Sex Marital Ther. 7: 85–113.
- Lothstein, L. M. (1979). The aging gender dysphoria (transsexual) patient.Arch. Sex. Behav. 8: 431–443.
- Meyer, J. K. (1974). Clinical variants among applicants for sex reassignment.Arch. Sex. Behav. 3: 527–558.
- Money, J. (1974). Two names, two wardrobes, two personalities.J. Homosex. 1: 65–70.
- Money, J., and Ambinder, R. (1978). Two years, real-life diagnostic test: Rehabilitation versus cure. In Brady, J. P., and Brodie, H. K. M. (eds.),Controversy in Psychiatry W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 833–845.
- Money, J., and Ehrhardt, A. A. (1972).Man and Woman, Boy and Girl Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
- Person, E., and Ovesey, L. (1974a). The transsexual syndrome in males: I Primary transsexualism.Am. J. Psychother. 28: 4–29.
- Person, E., and Ovesey, L. (1974b). The transsexual syndrome in males: II Secondary transsexualism.Am. J. Psychother. 28: 174–193.
- Person, E., and Ovesey, L. (1976). Transvestism: A disorder of the sense of self.Int. J. Psychoanal. Psychother. 5: 219–235.
- Prince, V. (1976).Understanding Cross-Dressing Chevalier Publications, Los Angeles.
- Roback, H. B., Schartz Felleman, E., and Abramowitz, S. I. (1984). The midlife male sex-change applicant: A multiclinic survey.Arch. Sex. Behav. 13: 141–153.
- Stoller, R. J. (1968).Sex and Gender Science House, New York.
- Verschoor, A. M., and Poortinga, J. (1988). Psychosocial differences between Dutch male and female transsexuals.Arch Sex. Behav. 17: 173–178.
- Cross-gender identity in transvestites and male transsexuals
Archives of Sexual Behavior
Volume 23, Issue 2 , pp 185-201
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- gender identity
- Industry Sectors