Generation of multiple drug resistance by sequential in vitro passage of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1
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- Gao, Q., Gu, Z., Salomon, H. et al. Archives of Virology (1994) 136: 111. doi:10.1007/BF01538821
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We have sequentially passaged both laboratory and clinical isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in MT-4 cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of different drugs to derive viral variants that are multiply resistant to various combinations of ddC, ddI, d4T and AZT. The EC50 values obtained for the viruses thus generated varied between 50–100 times above those of parental wild-type strains in the case of AZT, 20–30 times for d4T, but only 10–15 times for ddI and ddC. Cultivation of AZT-resistant viruses in the presence of increasing concentrations of ddI yielded viruses that were resistant to the latter compound, with no apparent decrease in susceptibility to AZT. Sometimes, viruses selected for resistance against ddI were cross-resistant as well against ddC, although most viruses selected for resistance to ddC were not cross-resistant to ddI. Combinations of two or three of these compounds inhibited replication of HIV variants that displayed resistance to the same drugs when tested individually. No emergence of drug resistance was demonstrable when combinations of drugs were employed simultaneously in these selection protocols or when single drugs were used in concert with interferon-2α or high dilutions of virus-neutralizing antisera. Cloning and sequencing of some viruses resistant to each of AZT, ddI, and ddC revealed the simultaneous presence of mutations at sites 41, 74, 184 and 215 within the HIV pol gene open reading frame.