Current spreading and series resistance of proton-implanted vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers
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- Nakwaski, W. Appl. Phys. A (1995) 61: 123. doi:10.1007/BF01538377
In this paper, the current flow through the whole volume of the proton-implanted Vertical-Cavity top-Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) is analysed in detail. A simple approximate analytical relation was derived for a radial distribution of the current density entering active regions of those lasers. This distribution is nearly uniform in the case of VCSELs with a very small active region, but is becoming more and more non-uniform with an increase in its size. In VCSELs with very large active regions, current is flowing practically only within a narrow annular area close to the active-region perimeter. The VCSEL series electrical resistance is determined as a function of its active-region radius.