Ethnic socialization of African American children: Implications for parenting, identity development, and academic achievement
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- Marshall, S. J Youth Adolescence (1995) 24: 377. doi:10.1007/BF01537187
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This research explores ethnic socialization among middle-income African American parents and their children who attend predominantly white schools. Descriptive data regarding parents' and children's reports of ethnic socialization practices were obtained. Additionally, the relationship between ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and academic achievement was assessed through correlational and predictive statistics. Correlation analyses indicated that children's reports of ethnic socialization were significantly related to the encounter stage of ethnic identity. Surprisingly, the child's report of ethnic socialization was predictive of lower classroom grades. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for ethnic socialization and identity development among African American children.