GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cochlea of the developing mouse
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
GABA-like immunoreactivity was studied in surface preparations of cochleas from postnatal developing mice, and GAD-like immunoreactivity was studied in the adult. GABA-positive fibres are already present at birth; they innervate both the inner and outer hair cells and some spiral ganglion cells. The GABA-positive fibres that enter via the intraganglionic bundle send collaterals to the spiral ganglion and to the hair cell region. Fibres that enter along the central processes of spiral neurons end predominantly among the spiral ganglion cells. A few spiral neurons display pericellular rings of GABA-positive boutons at birth. In older animals, the endings occur on a small number of spiral ganglion cells either as rings or as brush formations. The early GABA-positive fibres reach the inner hair cells around the second day and the outer hair cells (of the upper turns only) around the seventh day. In 12-day animals, tunnel fibres arborize in the outer hair cell region; their collaterals make contacts with the outer hair cells within four to eight cell-wide segments, distributing the endings high, up to the reticular plate. In older animals, fibres (both GABA- and GAD-positive) may innervate single vertical rows of outer hair cells. In the maturing and the adult cochlea, the GABA-positive component of the inner spiral bundle is conspicuous and extends along the entire cochlear length, but the innervation of the outer hair cells comprises only the mid and apical turns.
GABA-positive nerve cells occur among the small vestibular neurons, occasionally among the cells of eighth nerve nucleus and only exceptionally in the spiral ganglion. In the adult animal, GAD-positive cells, although uncommon, were observed among the spiral neurons.
In the developing animal, GABA-positive fibres give rise to transitory formations: (1) a convoluted plexus running beneath and among the radial bundles and (2) a sparse plexus, continuous with the inner spiral bundle and running in the upper plane of the inner spiral sulcus. GABA-like immunoreactivity was also observed in neuronal growth cones and in some fibres running along blood vessels.
In conclusion, GABA immunoreactive fibres appear to reach the cochlea by two routes: via the intraganglionic bundle and to a much lesser extent via the central bundles of the spiral ganglion. The fibres innervate sensory cells and also some spiral neurons. The occasional presence of GABA-positive neurons in the vestibular ganglion, in the VIIIth nerve nucleus, and exceptionally among the spiral neurons raises the possibility of a local GABAergic circuitry within the inner ear.
- ANNIKO, M. & BAGGER-SJÖBÄCK, D. (1987) Freeze fracture and numerical analyses of the spiral ganglion cells.Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 243, 407–10.
- BALLANTYNE, J. & ENGSTRÖM, H. (1969) Morphology of the vestibular ganglion cells.Journal of Laryngology and Otology 83, 19–42.
- CAJAL, S. RAMON Y. (1909)Histologie du Système nerveux de l'Homme et des Vertébres (reprinted 1952). Vol. 1. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Instituto Ramon Y Cajal.
- CHAMBERLAIN, S. C. (1977) Neuroanatomical aspects of the gerbil inner ear: light microscope observations.Journal of Comparative Neurology 171, 193–204.
- EYBALIN, M., PARNAUD, C., GEFFARD, M. & PUJOL, R. (1988) Immunoelectron microscopy identifies several types of GABA-containing efferent synapses in the guinea-pig organ of Corti.Neuroscience 24, 29–38.
- FEX, J. & ALTSCHULER, R. A. (1984) Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity of olivocochlear neurons in the organ of Corti of guinea pig and rat.Hearing Research 15, 123–31.
- FEX, J., ALTSCHULER, R. A., KACHAR, B., WENTHOLD, R. J. & ZEMPLE, J. M. (1986) GABA visualized by immunocytochemistry in the guinea pig cochlea in axons and endings of efferent neurons.Brain Research 366, 106–17.
- FEX, J. & WENTHOLD, R. J. (1976) Choline acetyltransferase, glutamate decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig.Brain Research 109, 575–85.
- GODFREY, D. A., CARTER, J. A., BERGER, S. J. & MACHINSKY, F. M. (1976) Levels of putative transmitter amino acids in the guinea pig cochlea.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 24, 468–72.
- GUINAN, J. J., WARR, W. B. & NORRIS, B. E. (1983) Differential olivocochlear projections from lateral versus medial zones of the superior olivary complex.Journal of Comparative Neurology 221, 358–70.
- HABERLY, L. B., HANSEN, D. J., FEIG, S. L. & PRESTO, S. (1987) Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in oppossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity GABA uptake.Journal of Comparative Neurology 266, 269–90.
- HARRISON, J. M., WARR, W. B. & IRVING, R. E. (1962) Second order neurons in the acoustic nerve.Science 138, 893–5.
- HARRISON, J. M. & WARR, W. B. (1962) A study of the cochlear nuclei and ascending auditory pathways of the medulla.Journal of Comparative Neurology 119, 341–80.
- HENDRY, S. H. C., HOUSER, C. R., JONES, E. G. & VAUGHN, J. E. (1983) Synaptic organization of immunocytochemically identified GABA neurons in the monkey sensorymotor cortex.Journal of Neurocytology 12, 639–60.
- HOUSER, C. R., HENDRY, S. H. C., JONES, E. G. & VAUGHN, J. E. (1983) Morphological diversity of immunocytochemically identified GABA neurons in the monkey sensory-motor cortex.Journal of Neurocytology 12, 617–38.
- HOUSER, C. R., BARBER, R. P. & VAUGHN, J. E. (1984) Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the dorsal lateral vestibula nucleus: evidence for an intrinsic & extrinsic GABAergic innervation.Neuroscience Letters 47, 213–20.
- HSU, S.-M., RAINE, L. & FANGER, H. (1981) Use of avidinbiotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparison between ABC and unlabeled antibody (PAP) procedures.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 29, 577–80.
- KATSUMARU, H., MURAKAMI, F., WU, J.-W. & TSUKAHARA, N. (1986) Sprouting of GABAergic synapses in the red nucleus after lesions of the nucleus interpositus in the cat.Journal of Neuroscience 6, 2864–74.
- KIANG, N. Y. S., RHO, J. M., NORTHROP, C. C., LIBERMAN, M. C. & RYUGO, D. K. (1982) Hair-cell innervation by spiral ganglion cells in adult cats.Science 217, 175–7.
- KIMURA, R. S., BONGIORNO, C. L. & IVERSON, N. A. (1987) Synapses and ephapses in the spiral ganglion.Acta Oto-Laryngologica (Stockholm) (Supplement438), 1–16.
- KLINKE, R. L & OERTEL, W. (1977) Evidence that GABA is not the afferent transmitter in the cochlea.Experimental Brain Research 28, 311–14.
- KOSAKA, T., TAUCHI, M. & DAHL, J. L. (1988) Cholinergic neurons containing GABA-like and/or glutamic acid decarboxylase-like immunoreactivities in various brain regions of the rat.Experimental Brain Research 70, 605–17.
- LAUDER, J. M., HAN, V. K. M., HENDERSON, P., VERDOORN, T. & TOWLE, A. C. (1986) Prenatal ontogeny of the GABAergic system in the rat brain: an immunocytochemical study.Neuroscience 19, 465–493.
- LIBERMAN, M. C. & BROWN, M. C. (1986) Physiology and anatomy of single olivocochlear neurons in the cat.Hearing Research 24, 17–36.
- MADTES, P. (1987) Ontogeny of the GABA receptor complex. InNeurotrophic Activity of GABA During Development (edited by REDBURN, D. A. & SHOUSBOE, A.), pp. 161–87. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.
- MEIER, E., BELHAGE, B., DREJER, J. & SCHOUSBOE, A. (1987) The expression of GABA receptors on cultured cerebellar granule cells is influenced by GABA. InNeurotrophic Activity of GABA During Development (edited by REDBURN, D. A. & SHOUSBOE, A.), pp. 139–59. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.
- MUGNAINI, E. (1985) GABA neurons in the superficial layers of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry.Journal of Comparative Neurology 235, 61–81.
- MUGNAINI, E. & OERTEL, W. H. (1985) An atlas of the distribution of GABAergic neurons and terminals in the rat CNS as revealed by GAD immunohistochemistry. InHandbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy. Vol. 4: GABA and Neuropeptides in the CNS, Part 1 (edited by BJÖRKLUND, A. & HÖKFELT, T.), pp. 436–608. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
- OERTEL, W. H., SCHMECHEL, D. E., TAPPAZ, M. L. & KOPIN, I. J. (1981a) Production of a specific antiserum to rat brain glutamic acid decarboxylase by injection of an antigenantibody complex.Neuroscience 6, 2689–700.
- OERTEL, W. H., SCHMECHEL, D. E., MUGNAINI, E., TAPPAZ, M. L. & KOPIN, I. J. (1981b) Immunocytochemical localization of glutamate decarboxylase in rat cerebellum with a new antiserum.Neuroscience 6, 2715–35.
- OTTERSEN, O. P. & STORM-MATHISEN, J. (1984) Glutamateand GABA-containing neurons in the mouse and rat brain, as demonstrated with a new immunocytochemical technique.Journal of Comparative Neurology 229, 374–92.
- POTASHNER, S. J., LINDBERG, N. & MOREST, D. K. (1985) Uptake and release ofγ-aminobutyric acid in the guinea pig cochlear nucleus after axotomy of cochlear and centrifugal fibres.Journal of Neurochemistry 45, 1558–66.
- REDBURN, D. A. & KEITH, M. E. (1987) Developmental alterations in retinal GABAergic neurons. InNeurotrophic Activity of GABA During Development (edited by REDBURN, D. A. & SHOUSBOE, A.), pp. 79–108. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.
- RIBAK, C. E., VAUGHN, J. E. & SAITO, K. (1978) Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase in neuronal somata following colchicine inhibition of axonal transport.Brain Research 140, 315–32.
- ROBERTS, E., CHASE, T. N. & TOWER, D. B. (1976)GABA in Nervous System Function. New York: Raven Press.
- ROSS, M. D. (1969) The general visceral efferent component of the eighth cranial nerve.Journal of Comparative Neurology 135, 453–78.
- ROSS, M. D. & BURKEL, W. (1971) Electron microscopic observation of the nucleus, glial dome, and meninges of the rat acoustic nerve.American Journal of Anatomy 130, 73–92.
- ROSS, M. D. & BURKEL, W. (1973) Multipolar neurons in the spiral ganglion of the rat.Acta Otolaryngologica 76, 381–94.
- SCHWARTZ, I. R. & RYAN, A. F. (1989) Autoradiographic studies of selective amino acid uptake by neural and nonneural elements in the gerbil cochlea.Journal of Electron Microscopy Techniques. In Press. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.
- SOBKOWICZ, H. M. & EMMERLING, M. E. (1989) Development of acetylcholinesterase-positive neuronal pathways in the cochlea of the mouse.Journal of Neurocytology 18, 209–24.
- SPOENDLIN, H. (1981) Autonomic innervation of the inner ear.Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology 27, 1–13.
- SPOENDLIN, H. & LICHTENSTEIGER, W. (1966) The adrenergic innervation of the labyrinth.Acta Otolaryngologica 61, 423–34.
- SPOENDLIN, H. & LICHTENSTEIGER, W. (1967) The sympathetic nerve supply to the inner ear.Archiv für klinishche und experimentaelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde 189, 346–59.
- SPOERRI, P. E. (1987) GABA-mediated developmental alterations in a neuronal cell line and in cultures of cerebral and retinal neurons. InNeurotrophic Activity of GABA During Development (edited by REDBURN, D. A. & SHOUSBOE, A.), pp. 189–220. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.
- TACHIBANA, M. & KURIYAMA, K. J. (1974)γ-aminobutyric acid in the lower auditory pathway of the guinea pig.Brain Research 69, 370–4.
- TANAKA, C. (1985)γ-aminobutyric acid in peripheral tissues.Life Sciences 37, 2221–35.
- TARLOV, I. M. (1937) Structure of the nerve root.Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 37, 555–83.
- THOMPSON, G. C., CORTEZ, A. M. & IGARASHI, M. (1986) GABA-like immunoreactivity in the squirrel monkey organ of Corti.Brain Research 372, 72–9.
- USAMI, S., IGARASHI, M. & THOMPSON, G. C. (1988) Light and electron-microscopic study ofγ-aminobutyric-acid-like immunoreactivity in the guinea pig organ of Corti.Oto-rhino-laryngology 50, 162–9.
- VETTER, D. E., ADAMS, J. C. & MUGNAINI, E. (1986) A dual efferent GABAergic projection to the rat cochlea.Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 12, 779.
- WARR, W. B. & GUINAN, J. J. (1979) Efferent innervation of the organ of Corti: two separate systems.Brain Research 173, 152–5.
- WENTHOLD, R. J., ZEMPEL, J. M., PARAKKAL, M. H., REEKS, K. A. & ALTSCHULER, R. A. (1986) Immunocytochemical localization of GABA in the cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig.Brain Research 380, 7–18.
- WHITE, J. S. & WARR, W. B. (1983) The dual origins of the olivocochlear bundle in the albino rat.Journal of Comparative Neurology 219, 203–14.
- GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cochlea of the developing mouse
Journal of Neurocytology
Volume 18, Issue 4 , pp 505-518
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links