Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Two studies tested the hypothesis that women are more likely than men to focus on themselves and their mood when in a depressed mood, and that this leads them to experience longer periods of depressed mood. In both studies subjects were predominantly Caucasian college students. In our first study, a laboratory study, females chose to engage in an emotion-related task significantly more often than did males, even when this lead them to focus on an existing sad mood. In the second study, a prospective naturalistic study, females were more likely than males to evince an emotion-focused ruminative style of coping with their moods. A ruminative response style at Time 1 was a significant predictor of depression scores at Time 2, even after initial levels of depressed mood were taken into account. Furthermore, once rumination levels were controlled for, gender was no longer a potent predictor of depression outcome. The implications of these response styles for treatment are discussed.
- Barden, R. C., Garber, J., Leiman, B., Ford, M. E., Masters, J. C. (1985) Factors governing the effective remediation of negative affect and its cognitive and behavioral consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49: pp. 1040-1053
- Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., Erbaugh, J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4: pp. 561-571
- Butler, L. D., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (in preparation). Response styles to negative affect: Differences in depression history and sex.
- Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F. (1990) Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review 97: pp. 19-35
- Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., Weintraub, J. K. (1989) Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56: pp. 267-283
- Deaux, K., Major, B. (1987) Putting gender into context: An interactive model of gender-related behavior. Psychological Review 94: pp. 369-389
- Duval, S., Wicklund, R. (1972) A theory of objective self-awareness. Academic Press, New York
- Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M., Buss, A. H. (1975) Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 43: pp. 522-527
- Gibbons, F. X., Smith, T. W., Ingram, R. E., Pearce, K., Brehm, S. S., Schroeder, D. (1985) Self-awareness and self-confrontation: Effects of self-focused attention on members of a clinical population. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48: pp. 662-675
- Gotlib, I. H. (1984) Depression and general psychopathology in university students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93: pp. 19-30
- Harrington, R., Fudge, H., Rutter, M., Pickles, A., Hill, J. (1990) Adult outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression: I. Psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry 47: pp. 465-473
- Ingram, R. E. (1990) Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin 107: pp. 156-176
- Ingram, R. E., Cruet, D., Johnson, B. R., Wisnicki, K. S. (1988) Self-focused attention, gender, gender role, and vulnerability to negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55: pp. 967-978
- Keller, S. E., Shapiro, R. W., Lavori, P. W., Wolfe, N. (1982) Relapse in major depressive disorder: Analysis of the life table. Archives of General Psychiatry 39: pp. 911-915
- Keltner, D., & Ellsworth, P. (1987).Emotion specific influences on judgments of responsibility. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Department of Psychology.
- Keltner, D., Ellsworth, P., & Edwards, K. (1992).Beyond simple pessimism: Effects of sadness and anger on social perception. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- Kleinke, C. L., Staneski, R. A., Mason, J. K. (1982) Sex differences in coping with depression. Sex Roles 8: pp. 877-889
- Kovacs, M., Feinberg, T. L., Crouse-Novak, M. A., Paulauskas, S. L., Finkelstein, R. (1984) Depressive disorders in children. I. A longitudinal prospective study of characteristics and recovery. Archives of General Psychiatry 41: pp. 229-237
- Lewinsohn, P. M., Hoberman, H., Teri, L., Hautzinger, M. An integrative theory of depression. In: Reiss, S., Bootzin, R. eds. (1985) Theoretical Issues in Behavior Therapy. Academic Press, New York
- Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1993).Ruminative responses to depression enhance negative thinking. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (in press). Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Morrow, J. (1990) The effects of rumination, distraction, and negative mood on memories, evaluations, and problem solving. Stanford University, Stanford, CA
- Morrow, J., Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990) Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58: pp. 519-527
- Needles, D. J., & Abramson, L. Y. (1990).Response to depressed mood: Cognitive and affective effects of rumination and distraction. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987) Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin 101: pp. 259-282
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990) Sex differences in depression. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991) Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100: pp. 569-582
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S. & Lyubomirsky, S. (1992).Effects of ruminative and distracting responses on problem-solving and attributions. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J. (1991) A prospective study of depression and distress following a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61: pp. 105-121
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., Seligman, M. E. P. (1992) Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 101: pp. 405-422
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., Fredrickson, B. L. (1993) Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102: pp. 20-28
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L., & Larson, J. (in press). Coping with depressed mood following loss.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J. (1987) Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of reactive depression. Psychological Bulletin 201: pp. 122-138
- Pyszczynski, T., Hamilton, J. H., Herring, F., Greenberg, J. (1989) Depression, self-focused attention, and the negative memory bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: pp. 351-357
- Pyszczynski, T., Holt, K., Greenberg, J. (1987) Depression, self-focused attention, and expectancies for future positive and negative events for self and others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52: pp. 994-1001
- Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., Seeley, J. R. (1991) Comorbidity of unipolar depression: II. Comorbidity with other mental disorders in adolescents and adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100: pp. 214-222
- Sargeant, J. K., Bruce, M. L., Florio, L. P., Weissman, M. M. (1990) Factors associated with 1-year outcome of major depression in the community. Archives of General Psychiatry 47: pp. 519-526
- Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S. (1977) Self-focused attention and the experience of emotion: Attraction, repulsion, elation, and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35: pp. 625-636
- Smith, T. W., Greenberg, J. (1981) Depression and self-focused attention. Motivation and Emotion 5: pp. 323-331
- Sutherland, G., Newman, B., Rachman, S. (1982) Experimental investigations of the relations between mood and intrusive unwanted cognitions. British Journal of Medical Psychology 55: pp. 127-138
- Teasdale, J. D., Fogarty, S. J. (1979) Differential effects of induced mood on retrieval of pleasant and unpleasant events from episodic memory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88: pp. 248-257
- Weissman, M. M., Klerman, G. L. (1977) Sex differences in the epidemiology of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 34: pp. 98-111
- Wood, J. V., Saltzberg, J. A., Neale, J. M., Stone, A. A., & Rachmiel, T. B. (1990). Self-focused attention, coping responses, and distressed mood in everyday life.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample
Volume 30, Issue 5-6 , pp 331-346
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors