Nineteen patients with massive lobar haemorrhage without angiographic lesions received direct or stereotactic surgery, and biopsy specimens were examined histologically. Ten patients (53%) were found to have vessels positive for Congo-red staining, and demonstrating amyloid angiopathy. In the patients with amyloid angiopathy, CT scan and surgical findings were investigated. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (9/10), irregularly shaped haematoma (9/10) and fluid-blood density level in the haematoma cavity (7/10) were frequently found on CT scan. The characteristic surgical findings in patients treated by direct surgery were subarachnoid haemorrhage adjacent to intracerebral haematoma (8/8) and the existence of a tangle of vessels in the haematoma cavity (4/8). Evacuation of haematomas was relatively easy, and difficulty of haemostasis was not encountered during surgery.