S-100 protein in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage: A potential marker of brain damage
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- Persson, L., Hårdemark, H., Edner, G. et al. Acta neurochir (1988) 93: 116. doi:10.1007/BF01402892
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Concentrations of S-100 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured by a recently developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 45 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), 44 with verified ruptured aneurysm. In each of 43 patients 2–15 serial CSF samples were analysed, and in the remainder 1 sample was examined. The concentrations of S-100 protein proved to be related to the brain damage caused by the SAH, indexed as outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale). The S-100 concentrations were related to the severity of the haemorrhage and to the development of delayed ischaemic deterioration. Delayed ischaemic deterioration (vasospasm) was usually accompanied by an increase in CSF S-100 concentration after 4 days. Patients in whom no S-100 value exceeded 20 ng S-100 per ml during the course of the disease had a favourable outcome, whereas patients in whom one or several CSF samples contained more than 100 ng/ ml became severely disabled or vegetative or died. The present study suggests that CSF S-100 analysis may be used as an objective and early measure of the degree of brain damage sustained by the SAH patient.