Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 99, Issue 3, pp 135–144

S-100 Protein in cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

Relation to functional outcome, late CT and SPECT changes, and signs of higher cortical dysfunction


  • H. -G. Hårdemark
    • Department of Neurology, SödersjukhusetKarolinska Institute
    • Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity Hospital
  • O. Almqvist
    • Department of Psychiatry, S:t Görans sjukhusKarolinska Institute
  • T. Johansson
    • Department of Neurology, SödersjukhusetKarolinska Institute
  • S. Påhlman
    • Department of PathologyUniversity Hospital
  • L. Persson
    • Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity Hospital

DOI: 10.1007/BF01402322

Cite this article as:
Hårdemark, H.-., Almqvist, O., Johansson, T. et al. Acta neurochir (1989) 99: 135. doi:10.1007/BF01402322


The concentration of S-100 protein measured in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 32 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) during the acute phase was related to features on admission such as the Hunt and Hess neurological scale and the amount of blood at the first computed tomography (CT). The S-100 values were also related to functional outcome assessed by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at 12 months. Twenty-two patients were re-examined more than 2 years after the SAH, and the initial S-100 values were related to signs of structural brain damage at CT and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to the results of neuropsychological evaluation (NPE). NPE included standardized tests for memory functions, intellectual functions, visuo-spatial abilities, sensory-motor functions, and concept formation. Life-adjustment was assessed by two separate questionnaires. Tests for agnostic dysfunction and the Western aphasia battery test (WABT) were also performed.

Patients who were functionally disabled or ultimately died had significantly higher initial CSF concentrations of S-100 protein than patients showing good recovery. Patients with low-attenuated regions and/or increased ventricular size at CT and/or regionally decreased tracer uptake on SPECT had higher S-100 levels during days 2–8 than had patients showing no such changes. Logistic and multiple regression analysis of all characteristics assessed during the acute phase after SAH showed that the CSF S-100 concentration during days 2–8 was the factor best correlated to GOS and findings on CT and/or SPECT.

All patients showed varying degrees of cognitive impairment at follow-up. The results of NPE and the WABT were related to outcome assessed by GOS and to increased ventricular size on CT. Women had a stronger feeling of maladjustment, but the scores for life adjustment were otherwise not related to other outcome criteria.

It is concluded that the ventricular CSF S-100 concentration during the acute phase after SAH is related not only to the functional outcome as assessed by GOS but also to signs of brain damage seen on late CT and SPECT.


Subarachnoid haemorrhagebrain damageS-100 proteinCSFCTSPECTneuropsychological evaluation

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989