Article

Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 279-308

First online:

Feedback in written instruction: The place of response certitude

  • Raymond W. KulhavyAffiliated withInstructional Science Research Facility, Arizona State University
  • , William A. StockAffiliated withInstructional Science Research Facility, Arizona State University

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Abstract

This paper reviews written feedback from an information-processing perspective. The first section discusses the question of feedback as a reinforcer, and describes the feedback paradigm used as a conceptual guide for the following sections. In the second section we evaluate research on the form and content of feedback. In the last section, a model is developed that applies concepts from servocontrol theory to the feedback sequence. Finally, we report three experiments which support the major predictions of the control model.

Key Words

feedback instruction learning cognition