World Journal of Urology

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 331-335

First online:

Population-based prostate cancer trends in the United States: patterns of change in the era of prostate-specific antigen

  • Robert A. StephensonAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Utah School of MedicineDivision of Urology, Room 3B 420, University of Utah School of Medicine Email author 
  • , Janet L. StanfordAffiliated withDepartment of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine

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We reviewed prostate cancer trends prior to and during the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era using data reported from population-based tumor registries in the United States. On the basis of a summary of reports from several population-based tumor registries, prostate cancer incidence rose abruptly during the PSA era, peaked in 1992, and then fell just as abruptly. Prostate cancer incidence in the United States now appears to be approaching levels seen in the pre-PSA era. The flux in prostate cancer incidence (in both magnitude and slope) during the years 1988–1995 is without precedent in oncology. As expected, an age and stage migration toward early age and early stage has been observed. Unexpectedly, grade has shifted heavily toward moderate differentiation, whereas rates of poorly and well-differentiated disease have remained relatively stable. Local treatment rates, particularly radical prostatectomy rates, have risen substantially. Mortality rates appear to have leveled or declined slightly since 1991 after years of steady rise.