, Volume 94, Issue 1, pp 19–40

Embryogeny ofPhaseolus coccineus: Growth and microanatomy

  • E. C. Yeung
  • Mary E. Clutter

DOI: 10.1007/BF01275532

Cite this article as:
Yeung, E.C. & Clutter, M.E. Protoplasma (1978) 94: 19. doi:10.1007/BF01275532


During early embryogeny, the development of the suspensor is rapid both in terms of size and fresh weight; structural differentiation can be observed as early as the proembryo stage with the formation of wall ingrowths. Ingrowths first appear in the outer wall of the suspensor cells adjacent to the integumentary tapetum, soon ingrowths begin to form in the inner suspensor cells as well. A basal-terminal gradation in nuclear size exists, with the largest nuclei in the basal suspensor cells. Cytologically, the suspensor cells appear to be very active, especially when the embryo reaches heart stage. Initially, the development of the embryo proper lags behind the suspensor, but its size and fresh weight increase rapidly as development proceeds. The volume of the liquid endosperm rises most rapidly during the late heart stage; and it is absorbed soon after. A cellular endospermic sheath surrounds the embryo, separating it from the liquid endosperm. Structural differentiation also occurs in the cellular endosperm cells with the formation of wall ingrowths in those cells that abut directly onto the integumentary tapetum. Both the suspensor and the cellular endosperm appear to remain active through the maturation of the seed. Storage bodies are formed in the cotyledons as well as in the embryonic axis. In the suspensor and the cellular endosperm, starch grains and lipid bodies can be found at the maturation stage.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. C. Yeung
    • 1
  • Mary E. Clutter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Osborn Memorial LaboratoriesYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada