Generating multiple solutions for a problem: A comparison of the responses of U.S. and Japanese students
 Edward A. Silver,
 Shukkwan S. Leung,
 Jinfa Cai
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A task involving simple mathematics, yet complex in its call for the generation of multiple solution methods, was administered to about 150 U.S. students, most of whom were in fourth grade. Written responses were examined for correctness, evidence of strategy use and mode of explanation. Results for the U.S. sample were also compared to those obtained from about 200 Japanese fourthgrade students. Students in both countries (a) produced multiple solutions and explanations of their solutions, (b) exhibited almost identical patterns and frequency of strategy use across response occasions, and (c) used the same kinds of explanations, with a majority of the responses involving solution explanations that combined both visual and verbal/symbolic features. Nevertheless, Japanese students tended to produce explanations involving more sophisticated mathematical ideas (multiplication rather than addition) and formalisms (mathematical expressions rather than verbal explanations) than did U.S. students.
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 Title
 Generating multiple solutions for a problem: A comparison of the responses of U.S. and Japanese students
 Journal

Educational Studies in Mathematics
Volume 28, Issue 1 , pp 3554
 Cover Date
 19950101
 DOI
 10.1007/BF01273855
 Print ISSN
 00131954
 Online ISSN
 15730816
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
 Additional Links
 Authors

 Edward A. Silver ^{(1)}
 Shukkwan S. Leung ^{(2)}
 Jinfa Cai ^{(3)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Learning Research and Development Center and Dept. of Curriculum & Instruction, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A
 2. Dept. of Mathematics and Science Education, National Chiayi Teachers College, Chia Yi, Taiwan; R.O.C
 3. Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics & Computer Science, Marguetle University, 53233, Milwaukee, WT, U.S.A