, Volume 133-134, Issue 1, pp 155-192

Metabolic compartmentation and substrate channelling in muscle cells

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Abstract

The published experimental data and existing concepts of cellular regulation of respiration are analyzed. Conventional, simplified considerations of regulatory mechanism by cytoplasmic ADP according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics or by derived parameters such as phosphate potential etc. do not explain relationships between oxygen consumption, workload and metabolic state of the cell. On the other hand, there are abundant data in literature showing microheterogeneity of cytoplasmic space in muscle cells, in particular with respect to ATP (and ADP) due to the structural organization of cell interior, existence of multienzyme complexes and structured water phase. Also very recent experimental data show that the intracellular diffusion of ADP is retarded in cardiomyocytes because of very low permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane for adenine nucleotidesin vivo. Most probably, permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane porin channels is controlled in the cellsin vivo by some intracellular factors which may be connected to cytoskeleton and lost during mitochondrial isolation. All these numerous data show convincingly that cellular metabolism cannot be understood if cell interior is considered as homogenous solution, and it is necessary to use the theories of organized metabolic systems and substrate-product channelling in multienzyme systems to understand metabolic regulation of respiration. One of these systems is the creatine kinase system, which channels high energy phosphates from mitochondria to sites of energy utilization. It is proposed that in muscle cells feed-back signal between contraction and mitochondrial respiration may be conducted by metabolic wave (propagation of oscillations of local concentration of ADP and creatine) through cytoplasmic equilibrium creatine and adenylate kinases and is amplified by coupled creatine kinase reaction in mitochondria. Mitochondrial creatine kinase has experimentally been shown to be a powerful amplifier of regulatory action of weak ADP fluxes due to its coupling to adenine nucleotide translocase. This phenomenon is also carefully analyzed.