Microchimica Acta

, Volume 114, Issue 1, pp 143–155

Environmental scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis

  • Gerasimos D. Danilatos
Invited Speakers

DOI: 10.1007/BF01244538

Cite this article as:
Danilatos, G.D. Mikrochim Acta (1994) 114: 143. doi:10.1007/BF01244538


It is shown that the environmental scanning electron microscope is the natural extension of the scanning electron microscope. The former incorporates all of the conventional functions of the latter and, in addition, it opens many new ways of looking at virtually any specimen, wet or dry, insulating or conducting. The environmental scanning electron microscope is characterised by the possibility of maintaining a gaseous pressure in the specimen chamber. All operational parameters can be varied within a range which is a function of pressure. It can be used with all types of gun and all basic modes of detection and, hence, it can be applied both to morphological and to microanalytical studies. It has opened many novel ways of looking at specimens and phenomena not previously accessible with scanning electron microscopy.

Key words

environmental SEMmicroanalysismass spectrometersurface chemistry

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerasimos D. Danilatos
    • 1
  1. 1.ESEM Research LaboratorySydneyAustralia