Zandvakili, S. Empirical Economics (1992) 17: 565. doi:10.1007/BF01205396
This paper provides measures of short and long-run inequalities as well as income stability among households with male heads using the panel study of income dynamics for the period 1969–1981. It is found that short-run inequalities have been increasing over the time period examined. Moreover, some fluctuations around this increasing trend are of a transitory nature and appear to be smooth over time. Long-run measures are less subject to fluctuations and provide a better measure of inequality. They show a decrease in inequality in the early periods but increases after the mid-1970's. Several aggregator functions are used to compute “permanent income” variables for the long-run measures of inequality and stability. The measures are decomposed to reflect differences in age, education, and race. They are decomposed also into groups which are free of such group characteristics. Education has the most important influence on inequality. Stability profiles indicate, furthermore, most of the reduction in inequality in the early periods has been within particular groups. Reductions across groups are minimal.