, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 301-330

Graph isomorphism is low for PP

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We show that the graph isomorphism problem, is low for PP and for C=P, i.e., it does not provide a PP or C=P computation with any additional power when used as an oracle. Furthermore, we show that graph isomorphism belongs to the class LWPP (see Fenner, Fortnow, Kurtz [12]). A similar result holds for the (apparently more difficult) problem Group Factorization. The problem of determining whether a given graph has a nontrivial automorphism, Graph Automorphism, is shown to be in SPP, and is therefore low for PP, C=P, and Mod k P,k≥2.