[1]

A. V. Aho, J. E. Hopcroft, and

J. D. Ullman,

*The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms*, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA, 1974.

Google Scholar [2]

D. Aldous, On the Markov chain simulation method for uniform combinatorial distributions and simulated annealing.

*Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences*
**1** (1987), 33–46.

Google Scholar [3]

L. Babai, Trading group theory for randomness, in*Proc. 17th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing*, 1985, 421–429.

[4]

L. Babai, E-mail and the unexpected power of interaction, in: Proc. 5th Ann. IEEE Structures in Complexity Theory Conf., 1990, 30–44.

[5]

L. Babai and

P. Erdős, Representation of group elements as short products,

*Annals of Discrete Mathematics*
**12** (1982), 27–30.

Google Scholar [6]

L. Babai and

L. Fortnow, Arithmetization: a new method in structural complexity theory,

*Computational Complexity*
**1** (1991), 41–66. (Preliminary version appeared as: A characterization of #

*P* by arithmetic straight line programs, in

*Proc. 31st Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Comp. Sci.*, 1990, 26–34.)

Google Scholar [7]

L. Babai, L. Fortnow, L. Levin, and M. Szegedy, Checking computations in polylogarithmic time, in:*Proc 23rd ACM Symp. Theory of Computing*, 1991, to appear.

[8]

L. Babai, L. Fortnow, and C. Lund, Non-deterministic exponential time has two-prover interactive protocols (extended abstract),*Proc. 31st Ann. IEEE Symp. Found. Comp. Sci.*, 1990, 16–25.

[9]

L. Babai and P. Frankl,*Linear Algebra Methods in Combinatorics, I*, Preliminary Version, University of Chicago, Dept. C. S. 1988.

[10]

D. Beaver and J. Feigenbaum, Hiding instances in multioracle queries, in*Proc. 7th Symp. on Theoretical Aspects of Comp. Sci. Lecture Notes in Comp. Sci.*
**415** (1990), 37–48.

[11]

M. Ben-Or, S. Goldwasser, J. Kilian, and A. Wigderson, Multiprover interactive proofs: How to remove the intractability assumptions, in*Proc. 20th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing*, 1988, 113–131.

[12]

M. Blum and S. Kannan, Designing programs that check their work, in*Proc. 21st Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing*, 1989, 86–97.

[13]

M. Blum, M. Luby, and R. Rubinfeld, Self-testing and self-correcting programs, with applications to numerical programs, in*Proc. 22nd Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing*, 1990, 73–83.

[14]

L. Babai and

S. Moran, Arthur-Merlin games: a randomized proof system, and a hierarchy of complexity classes.

*J. Comp. Sys. Sci.*
**36** (1988), 254–276.

Google Scholar [15]

J. Cai, PSPACE is provable by two provers in one round, manuscript, 1990.

[16]

S. A. Cook, The complexity of theorem proving procedures, in*Proc. 3rd Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing* 1971, 151–158.

[17]

U. Feige, S. Goldwasser, L. Lovász, and S. Safra, On the complexity of clique approximation, in preparation.

[18]

P. Feldman, The Optimum Prover lives in*PSPACE*, manuscript, 1986.

[19]

L. Fortnow, The Complexity of Perfect Zero-Knowledge, In S. Micali, ed.,*Randomness and Computation, Advances in Computing Research*
**5** (1989), 327–343.

[20]

L. Fortnow, Complexity-Theoretic Aspects of Interactive Proof Systems, Ph.D. Thesis,*Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Computer Science, Tech. Report* MIT/LCS/TR-447 1989.

[21]

L. Fortnow, J. Rompel, and M. Sipser, On the power of multiprover interactive protocols,*Proc. 3rd Structure in Complexity Theory Conf.*, 1988, 156–161.

[22]

L. Fortnow and

M. Sipser, Are there interactive protocols for co-NP languages?,

*Inf. Process. Letters*
**28** (1988), 249–251.

Google Scholar [23]

S. Goldwasser, S. Micali, and

C. Rackoff, The knowledge complexity of interactive proofs,

*SIAM J. Comput.*
**18** (1989), 186–208. (Preliminary version appeared in

*Proc. 18th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing*, 1985, 291–304.)

Google Scholar [24]

J. Hartmanis, N. Immerman, and

V. Sewelson, Sparse sets in

*NP-P: EXPTIME* versus

*NEXPTIME, Inf. and Control*
**65** (1985), 158–181.

Google Scholar [25]

H. Heller On Relativized Exponential and Probabilistic Complexity Classes,

*Information and Computation*
**71** (1986), 231–243.

Google Scholar [26]

R. Karp, R. Lipton, Some Connections between Nonuniform and Uniform Complexity Classes,*Proc. 12th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing*, 1980, 302–309.

[27]

L. Levin, Universal'nyîe perebornyîe zadachi (Universal search problems, in Russian),

*Problemy Peredachi Informatsii*
**9** (1973), 265–266. A corrected English translation appears in an appendix to Trakhtenbrot [39].

Google Scholar [28]

R. Lipton, New directions in testing, in*Proceedings of the DIMACS Workshop on Distributed Computing and Cryptography*, 1989, to appear.

[29]

C. Lund, L. Fortnow, H. Karloff, and N. Nisan, Algebraic methods for interactive proof systems, in*Proc. 31st Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Comp. Sci.*, 1990, 1–10.

[30]

P. Orponen, Complexity Classes of Alternating Machines with Oracles,

*Proc. 10th ICALP, Lecture Notes in Comp. Sci.*
**154** (1983), 573–584.

Google Scholar [31]

C. Papadimitriou, Games against Nature,*Proc. 24th Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Comp. Sci.*, 1983, 446–450.

[32]

G. Peterson and J. Reif, Multiple-person alternation,*Proc. 20th Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Comp. Sci.*, 1979, 348–363.

[33]

M. Santha, Relativized Arthur-Merlin versus Merlin-Arthur games,

*Inf. and Computation*
**80** (1989), 44–49.

Google Scholar [34]

J. Seiferas, M. Fischer, and

A. Meyer, Separating Nondeterministic Time Complexity Classes

*J. Assoc. Comput. Mach.*
**25** (1978), 146–167.

Google Scholar [35]

A. Shamir, IP=PSPACE, in*Proc. 31st Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Comp. Sci.*, 1990, 11–15.

[36]

J. Simon, On Some Central Problems in Computational Complexity, Ph.D. Thesis,*Cornell University, Computer Science, Tech. Report* TR 74-224, 1975.

[37]

J. T. Schwartz, Fast probabilistic algorithms for verification of polynomial identities,

*J. Assoc. Comput. Mach.*
**27** (1980), 701–717.

Google Scholar [38]

M. Szegedy, Efficient*MIP* protocol and a stronger condition on clique approximation, in preparation.

[39]

B. A. Trakhtenbrot, A survey of Russian approaches to

*Perebor* (brute-force search) algorithms,

*Annals of the History of Computing*
**6** (1984), 384–400.

Google Scholar [40]

S. Toda, On the computational power of*PP* and ⊕*P*, in*Proc. 30th Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Comp. Sci.*, 1989, 514–519.

[41]

L. Valiant, The complexity of computing the permanent,

*Theoretical Computer Science*
**8** (1979), 189–201.

Google Scholar [42]

L. Valiant, V. Vazirani,

*N P* is as Easy as Detecting Unique Solutions,

*Theoretical Computer Science*
**47** (1986), 85–93.

Google Scholar