Use of carbon dioxide and natural or synthetic aggregation-attachment pheromone of the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum, to attract and trap unfed adults in the field
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It was determined previously that unfed adults ofAmblyomma hebraeum become active in response to carbon dioxide but are not attracted by it. We have now shown in field experiments that males and females which are activated by carbon dioxide are attracted to the aggregation-attachment pheromone produced by males after a period of feeding on the host. Unfed adults were attracted too-nitrophenol, a component of the aggregation-attachment pheromone ofAmblyomma variegatum, pre-fed males ofA. hebraeum, and extracts of such males. Live males were more attractive than the extracts which, in turn, were more attractive thano-nitrophenol. The ticks were attracted to sources ofo-nitrophenol from as far away as 11 m in 90 min. Simple traps, baited with carbon dioxide and aggregation-attachment pheromone (from pre-fed males or extracts of pre-fed males), were used to capture unfed adults that had been released in the field. The response of unfed adults to carbon dioxide and the aggregation-attachment pheromone presents an obvious host-location mechanism and a means for the ticks to discriminate between suitable hosts (those with males already attached) and potentially unsuitable hosts (those with no males attached).
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- Use of carbon dioxide and natural or synthetic aggregation-attachment pheromone of the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum, to attract and trap unfed adults in the field
Experimental & Applied Acarology
Volume 7, Issue 3 , pp 171-180
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- Author Affiliations
- 1. Veterinary Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 8101, Causeway, (Zimbabwe)
- 3. Department of Entomology and Nematology, 3103 McCarty Hall IFAS, University of Florida, 32611, Gainesville, FL, (U.S.A.)
- 4. Veterinary Research Laboratory, University of Florida/USAID/Zimbabwe Heartwater Research Project, P.O. Box 8101, Causeway, (Zimbabwe)