Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 333–353

Effects of self-directed attention on performance and persistence among persons high and low in test anxiety

  • Charles S. Carver
  • Linda M. Peterson
  • Donna J. Follansbee
  • Michael F. Scheier

DOI: 10.1007/BF01177556

Cite this article as:
Carver, C.S., Peterson, L.M., Follansbee, D.J. et al. Cogn Ther Res (1983) 7: 333. doi:10.1007/BF01177556


Recent theories of test anxiety hold that self-directed attention impairs the performances of test-anxious persons in evaluative situations. Researchers have not sought to experimentally validate the mediation of self-focus in this relationship, however. Two studies are reported that were intended to provide evidence on this point. The studies also integrate the impairment hypothesis with a broader model of self-regulation, in which self-focus is sometimes facilitating and sometimes debilitating, depending upon the person's expectancies of being able to perform adequately. In Experiment 1, subjects high and low in test anxiety attempted a series of anagrams in an evaluative situation. As predicted, rather than exerting a uniformly adverse effect, experimentally enhanced self-focus interacted with level of test anxiety, improving performances among low-anxious subjects, impairing them among the test-anxious. Subjects in Experiment 2 attempted an insoluble test item, while their persistence was unobtrusively monitored. Self-directed attention once again interacted with level of test anxiety, so as to increase persistence among low-anxious subjects and to decrease it among the test-anxious. In neither study was there strong evidence that the difference in responding to self-focus was mediated by expectancy of performing well. A general discussion addresses this issue, along with the following: the relationship between these studies and the earlier literature of test anxiety, the theoretical implications of the fact that self-focus had interactive effects, and the fact that the theoretical model predicting these effects was developed in the context of normal, rather than abnormal, behavior.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles S. Carver
    • 1
  • Linda M. Peterson
    • 2
  • Donna J. Follansbee
    • 3
  • Michael F. Scheier
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  2. 2.Barry UniversityUSA
  3. 3.University of MiamiUSA
  4. 4.Carnegie-Mellon UniversityUSA