Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 591–605

The internal dialogue: On the asymmetry between positive and negative coping thoughts

  • Robert M. Schwartz

DOI: 10.1007/BF01173748

Cite this article as:
Schwartz, R.M. Cogn Ther Res (1986) 10: 591. doi:10.1007/BF01173748


The concept of the internal dialogue—and specifically the fundamental polarity between positive and negative thoughts—has historical antecedents from Plato to William James. Recent cognitive-behavioral research suggests that functional groups are characterized by approximately a 1.7 to 1 ratio of positive to negative coping thoughts, whereas mildly dysfunctional groups demonstrate equal frequencies of such thoughts. Furthermore, this research reveals an asymmetry between positive and negative coping thoughts, whereby negative thoughts have greater functional impact and are more likely to change as a result of therapy. After selectively tracing relevant historical factors, this article reviews research supporting these asymmetrical relationships and explores potential implications for increased specificity in cognitive-behavioral therapies.

Key words

internal dialoguepositive and negative cognitionassymetrycognitive balancecognitive-behavior therapy

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Schwartz
    • 1
  1. 1.Agoraphobia Program — Room 309AUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA