K. Danner Clouser, “Medical ethics: Some uses, abuses, and limitations,”The New England Journal of Medicine, 293:384–388, 1975.
Some of the standard texts and anthologies in Medical Ethics are: T.L. Beauchamp and J.F. Childress,Principles of Biomedical Ethics, New York: Oxford University Press, 1979; S.J. Reiser, A.J. Dyke, and W.J. Curran (eds.),Ethics in Medicine: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Concerns, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977; R.M. Veatch,Case Studies in Medical Ethics, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.
K. Danner Clouser,Teaching Bioethics: Strategies, Problems and Resources, New York: The Hasting Center, 1982.
Raphael Sassower and Michael A. Grodin, Collaborations between physicians and humanists — Beyond the metaphors,Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics, 8 (1):52–55, 1987.
George Annas,The Rights of Hospital Patients, American Civil Liberties Handbook, New York: Avon Books, 1975.
E.g., Karl R. Popper,Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934), New York: Harper & Row, 1959.
Thomas S. Kuhn,The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962.
Karl R. Popper,Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
An excellent recent book is Paul Starr'sThe Social Transformation of American Medicine, The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry, New York: Basic Books, 1982.
E.g., Albert R. Jonsen, Mark Siegler, and William J. Winslade,Clinical Ethics, A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, New York: Macmillan, 1982.
Raphael Sassower and Michael A. Grodin, Epistemological questions concerning death,Death Studies, 10:335–347, 1986.
Michael A. Grodin and Raphael Sassower, Whose patient is this, anyway? IRB:A Review of Human Subject Research, 4(2):6–7, 1987.
A shift from epistemological certainty to probability has already occurred in clinical medicine, while the quest for certainty has not been diminished at all. It may help to minimize or even transform the quest for certainty (in its psychological context) so it corresponds to medical practices. Raphael Sassower and Michael A. Grodin, Scientific uncertainty and medical responsibility,Theoretical Medicine, 8(2): 221–234, 1987.
E.g., Lester S. King,The Philosophy of Medicine, The Early Eighteenth Century, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Adolf Grünbaum,The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984.
Raphael Sassower,Philosophy of Economics, A Critique of Demarcation, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985.
Though written by a philosopher, the reexamination of Descartes' medical philosophy shows the relation between scientific data and philosophical speculation. Richard B. Carter,Descartes' Medical Philosophy, the Organic Solution to the Mind-Body Problem, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.