Beyond medical ethics: New directions for philosophy and medicine
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A unique relationship exists between physicians and philosophers — one that expands on the constructive potential of the liaison between physicians and, for example, theologians, on the one hand, or, social workers on the other. This liaison should focus in the scientific aspects of medicine, not just the ethical aspects. Philosophers can provide physicians with a perspective on both the philosophy and the history of medicine through the ages — a sense of how medicine has adapted to the social cultural and ethical needs of each period. This perspective, while emphasizing medicine asscience, should not be limited to matters of methodology, or to criteria for distinguishing science from other intellectual pursuits, but should be concerned also with the history, sociology and politics of science. Both physicians and philosophers stand to gain from a strengthening of their active liaison now as never before; but most of all, the public will be the beneficiary.
- K. Danner Clouser, “Medical ethics: Some uses, abuses, and limitations,”The New England Journal of Medicine, 293:384–388, 1975.
- Some of the standard texts and anthologies in Medical Ethics are: T.L. Beauchamp and J.F. Childress,Principles of Biomedical Ethics, New York: Oxford University Press, 1979; S.J. Reiser, A.J. Dyke, and W.J. Curran (eds.),Ethics in Medicine: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Concerns, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977; R.M. Veatch,Case Studies in Medical Ethics, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.
- K. Danner Clouser,Teaching Bioethics: Strategies, Problems and Resources, New York: The Hasting Center, 1982.
- Raphael Sassower and Michael A. Grodin, Collaborations between physicians and humanists — Beyond the metaphors,Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics, 8 (1):52–55, 1987.
- George Annas,The Rights of Hospital Patients, American Civil Liberties Handbook, New York: Avon Books, 1975.
- E.g., Karl R. Popper,Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934), New York: Harper & Row, 1959.
- Thomas S. Kuhn,The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962.
- Karl R. Popper,Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
- An excellent recent book is Paul Starr'sThe Social Transformation of American Medicine, The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry, New York: Basic Books, 1982.
- E.g., Albert R. Jonsen, Mark Siegler, and William J. Winslade,Clinical Ethics, A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, New York: Macmillan, 1982.
- Raphael Sassower and Michael A. Grodin, Epistemological questions concerning death,Death Studies, 10:335–347, 1986.
- Michael A. Grodin and Raphael Sassower, Whose patient is this, anyway? IRB:A Review of Human Subject Research, 4(2):6–7, 1987.
- A shift from epistemological certainty to probability has already occurred in clinical medicine, while the quest for certainty has not been diminished at all. It may help to minimize or even transform the quest for certainty (in its psychological context) so it corresponds to medical practices. Raphael Sassower and Michael A. Grodin, Scientific uncertainty and medical responsibility,Theoretical Medicine, 8(2): 221–234, 1987.
- E.g., Lester S. King,The Philosophy of Medicine, The Early Eighteenth Century, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
- Adolf Grünbaum,The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984.
- Raphael Sassower,Philosophy of Economics, A Critique of Demarcation, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985.
- Though written by a philosopher, the reexamination of Descartes' medical philosophy shows the relation between scientific data and philosophical speculation. Richard B. Carter,Descartes' Medical Philosophy, the Organic Solution to the Mind-Body Problem, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.
- Beyond medical ethics: New directions for philosophy and medicine
The Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics
Volume 9, Issue 2 , pp 121-134
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