, Volume 79, Issue 12, pp 551-559

First online:

Mechanisms of electromagnetic interaction with cellular systems

  • W. GrundlerAffiliated withGSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit
  • , F. KaiserAffiliated withInstitut für Angewandte Physik, Technische Hochschule
  • , F. KeilmannAffiliated withMax-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung
  • , J. WalleczekAffiliated withResearch Service, Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital

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The question of how electromagnetic fields - static or low to high frequency - interact with biological systems is of great interest. The current discussion among biologists, chemists, and physicists emphasizes aspects of experimental verification and of defining microscopic and macroscopic mechanisms. Both aspects are reviewed here. We emphasize that in certain situationsnonthermal interactions of electromagnetic fields occur with cellular systems.