, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 369-379

Impedance parameters and the state-of-charge. II. Lead-acid battery

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The determination of the state-of-charge of the lead-acid battery has been examined from the viewpoint of internal impedance. It is shown that the impedance is controlled by charge transfer and to a smaller extent by diffusion processes in the frequency range 15–100 Hz. The equivalent series/parallel capacitance as well as the a.c. phase-shift show a parabolic dependence upon the state-of-charge, with a maximum or minimum at 50% charge. These results are explained on the basis of a uniform transmission-line analog equivalent circuit for the battery electrodes.