Carbon sequestration in Norway spruce in south Sweden as influenced by air pollution, water availability, and fertilization
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- Nilsson, L.O. Water Air Soil Pollut (1993) 70: 177. doi:10.1007/BF01104995
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Carbon sequestration in 30 yr old Norway spruce in south Sweden following manipulation of nutrient and water availability is presented. The site has an annual precipitation of 1100 mm and a deposition of about 20 kg N and 25 kg S per ha−1 yr−1. The soil type is a poorly developed podzol. Treatment include irrigation; artificial drought; ammonium sulphate addition; nitrogen-free-fertilization and irrigation with liquid fertilizers including a complete set of nutrients. The experiment has a randomized block design with four replicates per treatment. A comprehensive investigation of the above ground C storage on an areal basis was made at the start of the experiment and after 3 yr of treatment. After 3 yr of treatment with simulated N-S deposition using ammonium sulphate (100 kg N, 114 kg S ha−1 yr−1), C accumulation rates in the above ground compartments had increased by 37%. Similarly, irrigation caused increased C accumulation rates by 25%, whereas simulated drought during the vegetation period during 2 yr followed by 1 yr of recovery caused a 15% reduction of the C accumulation rates. Irrigation combined with liquid fertilization (100 kg N ha−1 yr−1), including all important nutrient elements, led to 65% increase in C accumulation rates compared to the control. The C sequestration of the latter treatment gradually increased and, during yr 5 of treatment, 8.6 Mg C ha−1 accumulated in stems and branches, compared to 3.6 Mg ha−1 for the control. It is concluded that there is a strong interaction between N-deposition and C accumulation rates in Norway spruce in south Sweden. The C accumulation rates are also sensitive to water availability. The study indicates a great potential to cultivate Norway spruce in south Sweden as a renewable energy source. A shift in energy source from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources will directly reduce the net emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere.