, Volume 70, Issue 1-4, pp 177-186

Carbon sequestration in Norway spruce in south Sweden as influenced by air pollution, water availability, and fertilization

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Abstract

Carbon sequestration in 30 yr old Norway spruce in south Sweden following manipulation of nutrient and water availability is presented. The site has an annual precipitation of 1100 mm and a deposition of about 20 kg N and 25 kg S per ha−1 yr−1. The soil type is a poorly developed podzol. Treatment include irrigation; artificial drought; ammonium sulphate addition; nitrogen-free-fertilization and irrigation with liquid fertilizers including a complete set of nutrients. The experiment has a randomized block design with four replicates per treatment. A comprehensive investigation of the above ground C storage on an areal basis was made at the start of the experiment and after 3 yr of treatment. After 3 yr of treatment with simulated N-S deposition using ammonium sulphate (100 kg N, 114 kg S ha−1 yr−1), C accumulation rates in the above ground compartments had increased by 37%. Similarly, irrigation caused increased C accumulation rates by 25%, whereas simulated drought during the vegetation period during 2 yr followed by 1 yr of recovery caused a 15% reduction of the C accumulation rates. Irrigation combined with liquid fertilization (100 kg N ha−1 yr−1), including all important nutrient elements, led to 65% increase in C accumulation rates compared to the control. The C sequestration of the latter treatment gradually increased and, during yr 5 of treatment, 8.6 Mg C ha−1 accumulated in stems and branches, compared to 3.6 Mg ha−1 for the control. It is concluded that there is a strong interaction between N-deposition and C accumulation rates in Norway spruce in south Sweden. The C accumulation rates are also sensitive to water availability. The study indicates a great potential to cultivate Norway spruce in south Sweden as a renewable energy source. A shift in energy source from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources will directly reduce the net emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere.